PK & KK: Do Bihari, sub par bhari!


They could be defining faces of the decade, Forbes India has said. These 2 Bihari men have however been part of political parties with a limited support base

They could be the defining faces of the decade, said Forbes India while releasing a list of 20 Indians to watch out for in 2020. The two Bihari men have however been part of political parties with limited support base and credited with not too bright a future.

Neither JD(U), which expelled Kishor after he baited JD(U) president Nitish Kumar for not opposing the Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) nor the Communist Party of India, boasts of a large base in Bihar.

But at a time when communism is facing an existential challenge in India and abroad, Kanhaiya Kumar has been drawing huge crowds in his public meetings. He connects with people even better than Lalu Prasad Yadav. He speaks well, explains complex legal, economic or political issues simply and is an aggressive critic of the BJP and Narendra Modi.

While Kishor is a Brahmin, Kanhaiya happens to be a Bhumihar. But there the similarities end. Kumar hails from a poor family while Kishor’s father was a doctor. Unlike Kumar, Kishor is the quintessential backroom boy, a political and communication strategist. His public speaking skills remain untested while Kumar has already the makings of a mass leader.

Kishor in his early forties is already a veteran of many elections. After leaving his job with a UN body, he returned to help BJP win the Gujarat assembly election in 2011. He thereafter set up Narendra Modi’s Prime Ministerial campaign and is credited to have masterminded it. But after 2014 he parted ways with the BJP and signed up with Nitish Kumar to manage the campaign of the Maha Gathbandhan or Grand Alliance (RJD-JD(U) and Congress) in the Bihar election in 2015.

Since then Kishor has been either consulted or engaged by Mamata Banerjee, M.K. Stalin, Arvind Kejriwal, Captain Amrinder Singh and even Chandra Babu Naidu. No wonder he has kept people guessing about his next assignment.

His relations with Modi and Amit Shah remain an enigma. While Kishor has often boasted of excellent relations with the PM, he has never been very forthcoming about his relations with Amit Shah. But Nitish Kumar did publicly say last month that he had inducted Kishor in the party at the behest of Amit Shah.

While Kanhaiya Kumar has a PhD in African Studies from JNU, Prashant Kishor worked in the health sector in Africa for the United Nations.

While Marxism may have lost its appeal among the poor and the working classes, election of leftist governments in Nepal and Mexico in two corners of the world also speak of the continuing relevance of leftist ideas.

Both of them seem to be on the same page as the Congress on several issues. And while Kishor has publicly praised Congress leaders for opposing the CAA, Kanhaiya Kumar is accompanied by Congress MLA and a former JNUSU president himself Shakeel Ahmed, on his month-long ‘Jana Gana Mana Yatra’, which will conclude at Patna on February 29.

Whatever political direction their political journey eventually takes, the duo are sure to play key roles in the Assembly election later this year.

Aidan Singh Bhati to get Bihari Puraskar.

Source –

Dr. Aidan Singh Bhati will be awarded the 29th Bihari Puraskar for his poetry collection, Aankh Heeyae Ra Hariyal Sapna (Green Dreams of the Heart’s Eye), the KK Birla Foundation said in a statement Friday.

Bihari Puraskar is one of the three literary awards instituted by the Foundation in 1991. Named after famous Hindi poet Bihari, the award carries a cash prize of Rs 2.5 lakh, a citation and a plaque.

The award is given every year for an outstanding work in Hindi/Rajasthani published in the last 10 years by a Rajasthani writer.

After considering the works published during 2009-2018, poetry collection Aankh Heeyae Ra Hariyal Sapna by Dr. Bhati was selected for the 29th Bihari Puraskar, 2019.

The recipient is chosen by a selection committee. Its present chairman is Om Thanvi.

Born on December 10, 1952, in Jaisalmer’s Nokh village, Dr. Bhati is a noted poet and scholar in the Rajasthani language. His poetry reflects folk traditions of Rajasthan. His poetry collection, Hanstoda Hotan Rau Saanch (The Truth of Smiling Lips), is taught at Sukhadiya University.

After completing his master’s degree in Hindi, Dr. Bhati did his research on poetry from Jayanarayan University.

Aankh Heeyae Ra Hariyal Sapna, published in 2010, is a collection of poems that touch upon the geography of the Thar region, its culture and folk life. They also talk about the effects of globalisation. The collection delves into the plight of migrant villagers but also holds out hope and positivity.

The KK Birla Foundation also presents the Saraswati Samman, which is given to an outstanding literary work by an Indian citizen in any of the languages mentioned in Schedule VIII of the Constitution; and the Vyas Samman, given annually to an outstanding literary work in Hindi authored in the last 10 years.

Over 4500 people die of snakebites every year in Bihar.

Source –

PATNA: Bihar witnesses deaths of around 4,500 people every year due to snake bites, majority of them are from extremely poor backgrounds. Bihar stands as the third in the country with the largest number of deaths caused by snakebites in India.

Sharing this figure at a public awareness event organised at Asia’s longest-running sonepur fair on Sunday, Aditya Vaibhav, the  representative of ‘The Tricky Rescuer’, said : “ With a view to promoting awareness amongst Bihari masses on snakebites and post-bite response, a mass social campaign has been launched all over the state”.

Spelling out the objective of ‘The Tricky-Rescuer’, he said that it aims at saving snakes, as-well-as humans in case of conflicts by reducing the number of such occurrences.

Quoting figures of various research studies on the cases of snakebites, he said: “Five million snakebites occur globally each year, causing between 81,000 and 1.38 lakh deaths and nearly 4 lakh amputations and other permanent disabilities.

South Asia has the highest incidence of venomous snakebites in the world. Within the region, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka together constitute nearly 70% of global snakebite mortality”.

In Bihar, it is a sheer lack of prevention or a slew of post-snakebite steps; most of the victims die in state’s interiors than in urban landscapes. “Cobras, Kraits, Russell ’s viper and Saw Scale vipers are the commonly found venomous species of snakes, which bite the human-beings”.

He said: “Snakebites are exacerbated by ignorance. Let alone the illiterates, even most of those educated are unaware of crucial trivia. In a recent email survey that was conducted on 1,000 graduates, with equal participation of both males and females, in ten developing and developed countries it was found
that close of 870 individuals did not know what an antivenin is”.

Antivenin is the antiserum containing antibodies against specific chemicals, especially those in the venom of snakes, spiders, and scorpions.

Manisha Kulshreshtha wins 28th Bihari Puraskar.

Source –

Noted writer from Rajasthan, Manisha Kulshreshtha, was awarded the 28th Bihari Puraskar for 2018 for her novel ‘Swapnapash’, on Friday.

The award is presented by the KK Birla Foundation and is for writers of Rajasthani origin. It is given annually to an outstanding work in Hindi or Rajasthani published in the past 10 years. Named after famous Hindi poet Bihari, the award carries a cash prize of ~2.5 lakh, a citation, and a plaque.

Fifty-two-year-old Kulshreshtha was born in Jodhpur and is a graduate in science and postgraduate in Hindi literature.

She is known for her works like ‘Shigaf’, ‘Shalbhanjika’ and ‘Panchkanya’.

The citation read, “In Swapnapash, through her protagonist Gulnaz Fariba, Kulshreshtha has presented a lively description of a woman with schizophrenia, her life, her dreams, expectation and apprehensions.”

A freelance writer, Kulshreshtha also edits Hindi web magazine ‘Hindi Next’.

Speaking on the occasion, she said, “I am thankful to Birla Foundation for the award which will make me more responsible towards every word I write.”

Chief guest Mamta Kaliya said, “Rajasthan has a tradition of great storytellers and Manisha has carried it with control over a topic such as schizophrenia.”

KK Birla Foundation director Suresh Rituparn said it was established by KK Birla with an objective to work in areas like education, culture, academics, art and health. The Bihari Puraskar is one of the three literary awards instituted by the Foundation in 1991.

The jury this year comprised Nand Bharadwaj, Hemant Shesh, Murlidhar Vaishnav, Alka Saraogi, Om Thanvi and Dr Suresh Rituparn.

What Bill Gates Said About Bihar’s Efforts To Fight Poverty, Diseases.


PATNA: Billionaire philanthropist and Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates on Sunday praised the Bihar government’s progress in fighting poverty and disease in the last 20 years. He said only a few places have been able to surpass the achievements made by the state.

The co-chair and trustee of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, who is on a visit to Bihar, said this at a meeting with Chief Minister Nitish Kumar in Patna.

“Over the past 20 years, few places have made more progress against poverty and disease than Bihar. Compared to her mother born two decades ago, a child born today in Bihar is twice more likely to reach her fifth birthday,” a press release quoted Bill Gates as saying.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is committed to working with the state government to ensure health and education for all children, the statement said.

The state government also announced its commitment for continued partnership with the foundation to find solutions to the state’s critical health and development goals.

“Now, we have to make sure that all children are able to grow up healthy and get a good education. And our foundation remains committed to working with the state government to make that happen,” the statement said.

Commenting on the interaction, Mr Kumar expressed happiness with the collaboration as it would help improve public health services.

“We are pleased with our collaboration with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to improve public health services, community level behaviour change, scaling up innovation across health, nutrition and agriculture. Bihar is keen to continue partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to further strengthen sustainable systems across departments like health, social welfare, agriculture, empowerment of women and rural development,” the chief minister said.

The discussion also focused on giving priorities to structural reforms in the health sector with a need to strengthen primary health care by building a robust, resilient and responsive health system in Bihar, the statement said.

Elaborating on the “impressive” progress made by Bihar, the statement mentioned decisive actions towards reforming the state health system through creation of a Public Health Management Cadre for delivering good quality clinical care and bringing more administrative and management capacity into public health.

Mr Gates was apprised of the chief minister’s flagship programme “Jal-Jivan-Hariyali”, an inter-departmental effort to combat the effects of climate change. The chief minister was accompanied by his deputy Sushil Kumar Modi, health minister Mangal Pandey and key officials during the meeting.

Cattle trader beaten to death in Bihar, probe on.

Source –

Patna: Nitish Kumar-led government facing attack over rising crime graph was in for another setback after a cattle trader was killed by a group of men for refusing to pay extortion money.

The incident occurred on Monday when a cattle trader identified as Mohammad Jamal was going to neighbouring West Bengal to sell his cows. The police investigating the case feel that the real cause of the incident could be personal enmity between the victim and the accused who is also involved in the cattle trading business.

The incident took place in the presence of Jamal’s younger brother who was escorting him to a weekly market in West Bengal to sell the cattle. Police investigating the case said that FIR against one Sagar Yadav and three others was registered on the basis of complaint filed by the victim’s brother.

“We have registered an FIR against those who are involved in the case. Manhunt has been launched and raids are being conducted in the area to nab the accused,” the police said.

Sources from Katihar said that Jamal was stopped by motorcycle-borne men who asked him for money. “They attacked him after he refused to pay them. He was rushed to the hospital where he was declared dead”.  

Meanwhile, local people blamed the district administration for rising crime graph in the area and demanded immediate arrest of all the accused who has been absconding after the incident. Protesters also demanded a compensation of `25 lakh for the family members of the victim.

As per an assessment over two dozen cases of lynching and mob attack have rocked the state in the last couple of months.  In view of some of the recent incidents, district administration has been asked to launch a campaign and create awareness to counter rumours leading to violence.

Social activists, however, feel that rivalry between two cattle traders led to the killing of Mohammad Jamal in Katihar and urged the police to arrest all the accused involved in the case.

Jitan Ram Manjhi Threatens To Pull Out Of Opposition Alliance In Bihar.

Source –

PATNA: Disarray in the opposition Grand Alliance in Bihar again emerged on Friday when former Bihar Chief Minister Jitan Ram Manjhi’s fresh threat of pulling out of the five-party formation was rubbished by other coalition partners as his pressure tactics.

They expressed the view that the Hindustani Awam Morcha (HAM) chief was merely trying to play hardball and would ultimately fall in line.

Mr Manjhi had announced at the meeting of his party’s national executive meeting in Bihar capital Patna Thursday night it will go it alone in Jharkhand where it has never contested an election so far and field its candidates in all the 243 assembly segments in Bihar when Vidhan Sabha polls were held next year.

The mercurial leader, however, was yet to make up his mind as to which seats to contest in Jharkhand where elections have been announced and polling would commence by the end of this month.

His announcement of fighting all the Bihar seats was in line with his repeated threats issued in the aftermath of the drubbing received by the grand alliance in the Lok Sabha polls.

HAM had lost all the five Lok Sabha seats it had contested, including Gaya which Mr Manjhi himself lost to a relative newcomer Vijay Manjhi of the JD(U).

Speculation is rife that after having gravitated to the grand alliance last year, when he quit the NDA and ended up clinching a legislative council berth for his son from the quota of the RJD the wily leader may be eyeing a return to the formation headed by the BJP which seems on the upswing in the state as well as the country.

However, Mr Manjhi firmly denied any plans to return to the NDA when asked by reporters on Friday.

NDA sources say that Mr Manjhi’s entry is likely to meet with stiff opposition from Chief Minister Nitish Kumar, who heads the JD(U) and against whom the HAM president had revolted before floating his own outfit.

Besides, the LJP of Ram Vilas Paswan would also not like to share his political space with another Dalit leader.

Meanwhile, RJD national vice president Raghuvansh Prasad Singh dismissed Mr Manjhi’s latest outburst, saying “he is simply engaging in a bit of shadow boxing to enthuse his party’s rank and file.”

“He may be having some demands which are not being met. But that happens to all parties in a coalition. Once the process of campaign for Bihar assembly elections picks up, he is going to find no other abode except the grand alliance”.

The views were echoed by Congress Rajya Sabha member Akhilesh Prasad Singh, who hoped that his current foul mood notwithstanding, Mr Manjhi will be firmly with the grand alliance when the poll bugle is sounded in Bihar.

Interestingly, former Bollywood set designer Mukesh Sahni whose support Mr Manjhi has been counting on since the recent by-polls, ended up at a press conference addressed jointly by leaders of the grand alliance and Left parties as a show of solidarity among forces opposed to the BJP-led coalition, which rules the Centre as well as the state.

The press conference was organized by RLSP chief Upendra Kushwaha on Friday and Mr Manjhi took care to ensure no leader of his party attended the same.

However, RLSP national secretary general Madhaw Anand told PTI “we are not able to understand the grouse of Manjhi, who is a senior and respected leader. He seems to be impatient about things like the grand alliance chief ministerial candidate and the respective share of seats for each constituent. We can only urge him not to cause more damage to the Mahagathbandhan by haste,” Mr Anand said.

Mr Anand was hinting at Mr Manjhi having fielded his candidate from Nathnagar assembly segment where by-polls were held last month and which the RJD lost by a margin less than the number of votes secured by the HAM candidate.

Taking a cue from Mr Manjhi, Mr Sahni had also fielded his party’s candidate from Simri Bakhtiyarpur though it did not come in the way of the RJD wresting the seat from JD(U) by a comfortable margin.

Mr Manjhi’s defiant stance during elections had followed repeated attacks on RJD leader Tejashwi Yadav on whose inexperience he blamed the Lok Sabha debacle of grand alliance and threw his hat in the ring for being projected as the opposition coalitions cm candidate, much to the annoyance of Lalu Yadav’s party.

CARE’s Work In Bihar Shows Progress Is Possible Against The Toughest Problems.

Source –

Where will you find CARE? Think of trouble spots around the world where there are humanitarian disasters tied to extreme poverty, conflict, hunger, or a lack of basic healthcare or education. CARE is on the ground in these places, addressing survival needs, running clinics, and helping individuals, families, and communities rebuild their lives.

CARE’s scope is truly global. In 2018, the organization reached 56 million needy people through 965 programs in 95 countries, in places such as Mali, Jordan, Bangladesh, Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yemen, India, the Dominican Republic, and Niger.

CARE didn’t start out as a huge global charity, though. Founded in 1945, CARE provided a way for Americans to send lifesaving food and supplies to survivors of World War II—“CARE packages.” Today, it responds to dozens of disasters each year, reaching nearly 12 million people through its emergency programs. The rest of CARE’s work is through longer-term engagements, such as its work in Bihar State, in northern India.

Bihar, with a population of more than 110 million people, is one of India’s poorest states—and has some of the country’s highest rates of infant and maternal mortality as well as childhood malnutrition. Since 2011, CARE has been working with the Bihar state government and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to address those problems and to increase immunization rates for mothers and children.

The results to date have been significant: The percentage of 1-year-olds with completed immunization schedules increased from 12% to 84% between 2005 and 2018; there were nearly 20,000 fewer newborn deaths in 2016 than in 2011; and the maternal mortality rate fell by nearly half, from 312 to 165 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births between 2005 and 2018. How? Some of CARE’s initiatives involved improving healthcare facilities, mentoring nurses, supporting local social workers and midwives, and tracking the care given to weak and low-weight newborns.

Wherever you find CARE, you’ll also find the impact of CARE’s donors, putting their dollars and euros to work buying food and medicine, paying teachers, and offsetting the million-and-one costs of providing relief on a truly global scale. Like all large NGOs, CARE needs to communicate with its donors, especially the largest foundations, providing timely reports, demonstrating compliance with grant terms and conditions, and displaying complete fiscal transparency. That’s part of their necessary overhead. For CARE, the cloud is helping it improve communications while reducing that overhead.

Lowering Back-Office Costs

In fiscal 2018, CARE’s total incoming support was $604 million, from sources including private donations, government funding, and other grants. CARE solicits donations from individuals through its website and direct mail, but a significant part of its finances come from governmental and foundation grants, explains Jared Janeczko, interim CIO.

“As an NGO we have many sources of funding, and all of those sources have different compliance requirements,” says Janeczko. “We’ve configured our software to adhere to those requirements, whether imposed by a donor government or foundation or the country in which we are operating.”

A particular donor might have restrictions that say its grant money may—or may not—be used only for specific purposes. CARE needs to show that the money was spent in accordance with those requirements. Similarly, the country where CARE is spending the money on expenses such as food, fuel, salaries, rent, or electricity, might charge certain taxes or insist on specific documentation.

This requires sophisticated accounting and business management software. For a number of years, CARE has used Oracle’s PeopleSoft to manage its operations and satisfy both donors and governments in host countries.

“At the end of the day, donors want to know that their donation is going to the beneficiary, so having a financial solution like PeopleSoft gives us that ability,” says Janeczko. “A grant manager uses PeopleSoft to run grant reports based on financial transactional data. We deliver those reports together with impact data to provide a comprehensive overview of our programs.”

Over the past year, CARE has migrated from instances of PeopleSoft running in its own private cloud to PeopleSoft running within Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. Janeczko sees two major benefits to the PeopleSoft migration to the cloud. The first is reduced operating costs. “Our focus is on delivering humanitarian aid. It’s not on supporting global systems. So the main motivation for us was to minimize costs,” he says.

The second improvement is that they’re always current on the latest version of PeopleSoft, as well as all of its patches and fixes. “We were so far behind with our PeopleSoft updates,” he grimaces. “As an organization, we weren’t able to keep up with the release cycle.” Now, PeopleSoft running on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure is a fully managed service. “That frees up our IT team to focus on delivering internal customer support, supporting our country offices as well as our donor requirements.”

The PeopleSoft migration to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure proved a fast and painless lift and shift, with the system up after four days. “It was a nonevent from the end-user perspective,” Janeczko says.

The next process CARE’s IT team plans to simplify via the cloud is travel and expense reporting. “As a global organization we send people all over the world, yet we are still doing travel and expense reports in Excel spreadsheets—it’s a huge inefficiency,” Janeczko says. “It’s also functionality that we plan to deploy in PeopleSoft, now that we’re on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.”

Time is money, and the less time spent running reports, the more resources become available for the children of Bihar, refugees, the poor, the displaced, the hungry—all over the world. Because if one thing is certain, CARE’s work won’t be finished anytime soon.

Share of Women in Subordinate Courts Highest in Telangana, Least in Bihar.

Source –

Telangana has the highest share of women judges at 44 per cent and Bihar the lowest at 11.5 per cent in subordinate courts, while seven states did not have a single woman judge in their high courts as of June 2018, according to a report.

The share of women in the judiciary has come down and despite wide acceptance of value of gender diversity, the actual presence of women in state judiciaries is underwhelming, the Tata Trusts’ India Justice Report-2019 stated.

It said that “among the large and mid-sized states, at just above 44 per cent, Telangana had the largest share of women in the subordinate courts, but at the high court level, this drops to a meagre 10 per cent.”

“Similarly, Punjab with 39 per cent at the subordinate level, (the share of women judges) drops down to 12 per cent in the high court,” it said.

“This pattern is apparent everywhere with only Tamil Nadu breaking the trend with a high number of women at the high court level (19.6 per cent), and more women than its quota of 35 per cent at the subordinate courts,” according to the report.

Data of 18 large and mid-sized states, and seven small states was taken for the Tata Trust report.

The share of women judges at subordinate courts in Meghalaya is 74 per cent and in Goa, 66 per cent the highest among small states.

“However, Goa’s share at the high court level was just 12.68 per cent. Sikkim demonstrates a high share of women at both levels, with 64.71 per cent in the high court and 33.33 per cent at the subordinate court level.

“In terms of absolute numbers, however, this would be one female judge of three, at the high court-level, and 11 female judges out of 17 at the level of subordinate courts,” the report said.

The ranking is an initiative of Tata Trusts in collaboration with Centre for Social Justice, Common Cause, Commonwealth Human Rights Initiative, DAKSH, TISS- Prayas and Vidhi Centre for Legal Policy.

“The presence of women judges portrays the institution that upholds law and dispenses justice as an equal opportunity space driven by fair, meritocratic, and non-discriminatory practices and norms.

“Arguably, women on the bench also influence the quality of judicial decision-making, because the inclusion of their life experiences must necessarily allow a wider variety of human experiences into the process of judging,” the report said.

The country has about 18,200 judges with about 23 per cent sanctioned posts vacant, as per the findings of the report.

UP, Bihar at bottom of India’s justice league.

Source –

Law and order has always been a major concern in the two big states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Despite claims of improvement over the years by respective state leaderships, a recent report by Tata Trusts has statistically proven that these two states have the worst justice system in India.

The study, titled India Justice Report’, which Tata Trusts published on Thursday, developed an index of justice system across the country using four parameters police, prisons, judiciary and legal aid. An assessment of 18 bigger states revealed that UP and Bihar have the worst justice system in India. While UP ranked at the bottom of the list, Bihar stood at number 17.

On the basis of these parameters, a score was allotted to each state on a scale of 10. None of the states had the perfect score. UP and Bihar got a score of 3.32 and 4.02 respectively. Following them from the bottom were Jharkhand (4.3), Uttarakhand (4.49), Rajasthan (4.52) and Andhra Pradesh (4.77).

The state with the best justice system according to the report is Maharashtra with a score of 5.92. It is followed by Kerala (5.85), Tamil Nadu (5.76), Punjab (5.53) and Haryana (5.53).

The average score of all the bigger states turned out to be 4.95, which means more than 50 per cent conditions to get a perfect score for the justice system have not been met. In fact, of the 18 big states surveyed, 11 had a score of above 5.

Collectively, the data paints a grim picture. It highlights that each individual sub-system is starved for budgets, manpower and infrastructure; no state is fully compliant with the standards it has set for itself. Governments are content to create ad hoc and patchwork remedies to cure deeply embedded systemic failures. Inevitably, the burden of all this falls on the public, the report says.

Why UP, Bihar rank at the bottom

A deeper look at the statistics reveals that in almost every aspect, UP and Bihar exchanged the last and second last position.


The study took several factors to assess the police system in the states, ranging from modernisation, inducing women, diversity, budgeting, human resource planning and infrastructure.

On this front, the best score was achieved by Tamil Nadu 6.49. UP received a score of 2.98, whereas Bihar got 3.77. UP fared poor in terms of budgeting, spending on police per person, vacancies and diversity.


This parameter was assessed on various factors ranging from overcrowding, inclusion of women staff, adequate human resources, budgeting, infrastructure, etc.

Jharkhand fared the worst with a score of 3.46. It was followed by Uttarakhand (3.72), Punjab (4.35), Andhra Pradesh (4.35) and UP (4.42). Surprisingly, Bihar stood at number six with a score of 5.61. The best in this regard was Kerala with a score of 7.18.


This parameter was assessed on availability of judges, clearance of cases, spending on judiciary, etc.

Bihar, with a score of 2.41, fared the worst in this regard. It was followed by UP (3.7), Karnataka (3.76), Uttarakhand (4.17) and Jharkhand (4.3). Tamil Nadu again featured on the top in terms of judiciary with a score of 6.99. It was followed by Punjab (6.57), Haryana (6.23) and Maharashtra (5.96).

On an average, Bihar saw a bleak growth in expenditure on judiciary in comparison to total spending. From 2011 to 2016, the state expenditure rose by 17.8 per cent; however, expenditure on judiciary rose by only 8 per cent.

Legal aid

The report also highlighted the importance of legal aid. It said that almost 80 per cent of India’s 1.25-billion population is eligible for free legal aid, but only 15 million people have availed it since 1995.

Here too, the parameter was assessed on the basis of budgeting, human resources, diversity, infrastructure and work load. With a score of 2.5, UP fared worst, followed by Uttarakhand (4.46), Bihar (4.52) and Odisha (4.61).