Know Your State Bihar – Facts, Boundaries, State Symbols, History, Geography, Major Dams, Festivals, Lakes, and Culture.

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A major part of General Awareness section is based on Indian states. Therefore it is important that you know the information about the states well. Know your State – Bihar will help you learn major facts, global importance, and culture of every state. This particular article will help you learn everything about Bihar in one glance.

Read the complete article to find out the history, economy, geographical significance, flora & fauna, important sites, tourist attractions, etc. about Bihar. You can also download this article as a PDF to keep it handy.

Basic Facts about Bihar

• Formation: 22 March 1912 (Bihar Diwas)
• Statehood: 26 January 1950
• Capital: Patna
• Number of District : 38
• Governor: Fagu Chauhan
• Chief Minister: Nitish Kumar (JD(U))
• High court: Patna High Court
• Chief Justice: Amreshwar Pratap Sahi
• Members of the Legislative Assembly: 243
• Lok Sabha Seats: 39
• Rajya Sabha Seats: 16

Bihar – Boundaries

  • The state is bordered by Uttar Pradesh to its west, Nepal to the north, the northern part of West Bengal to the east, and with Jharkhand to the south.

Bihar State Symbols

• State Animal: Gaur
• State Bird: House Sparrow
• State Flower: Marigold
• State Tree: Peepal

History of Bihar

  • Regions of Bihar- such as Magadha, Mithila and Anga, are mentioned in religious texts and epics of ancient India.
  • In ancient and classical India, the area that is now Bihar was considered a centre of power, learning, and culture.
  • From Magadha arose India’s first empire, the Maurya empire, as well as one of the world’s most widely adhered-to religions: Buddhism.
  • On 15 November 2000, southern Bihar was ceded to form the new state of Jharkhand.

Geography of Bihar

  • It is the twelfth-largest Indian state. The third-largest state by population.
  • Bihar is a vast stretch of fertile plain.
  • It is drained by the Ganges River, including its northern tributaries Gandak and Kosi, originating in the Nepal Himalayas and the Bagmati originating in the Kathmandu Valley that regularly flood parts of the Bihar plains.
  • The Ganges divides Bihar into two unequal halves and flows through the middle from west to east.
  • The Legislative Assembly election was held over five-phases in Bihar in 2015.
  • The RJD emerged as a single largest party with 81 seats, followed by JD (U) with 70 seats and BJP with 53 seats.
  • Nitish Kumar is the current CM of Bihar.
  • Legislative Assembly elections will be held in Bihar in October 2020 to elect 243 members of the Bihar Legislative Assembly.

Major Dams in Bihar, India

Indrapuri Barrage: Indrapuri Barrage (also known as the Sone Barrage) is across the Son River in Rohtas district in the Indian state of Bihar.

Important Lakes in Bihar

  • Kanwar Lake: (Begusarai )
  • Dhua Kund : ( Sasaram)
  • Sita Kund: ( Sitamarhi)
  • Muchalinda Lake: (Bodhgaya)
  • Ghora Katora Lake: (Nalanda)

General Facts about Bihar

  • Only 11.3% of the population of Bihar lives in urban areas, which is the lowest in India after Himachal Pradesh.
  • Additionally, almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state.
  • Three main regions converge in the state: Magadh, Mithila, and Bhojpur.
  • Literacy (2011): 82%
  • Sex ratio (2011): 918 $/1000 S
  • Hindu Goddess Sita, the consort of Lord Rama is believed to be born in Sitamarhi district in the Mithila region of modern-day Bihar.
  • Gautama Buddha attained Enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, a town located in the modern day district of Gaya in Bihar.
  • Vasupujya, the 12th Jain Tirthankara was born in Champapuri, Bhagalpur.
  • Vardhamana Mahavira, the 24th and the last Tirthankara of Jainism, was born in Vaishali around the 6th century BC.

GI Tags of Bihar

  • Silao khaja
  • Sujini Embroidery
  • Sikki Grass Work
  • Madhubani Paintings
  • Applique (Khatwa)
  • Bhagalpur Silks
  • Sikki Grass
  • Shahi Litchi
  • Katarni Rice
  • Jardalu Mango
  • Magahi Paan (Betel)

Festivals & Fairs of Bihar

  • Chatth Puja: Almost all civilizations have worshipped the ‘sun god’, but it has a unique form in Bihar.
  • Sama-Chakeva: It is during the winter season that the birds from the Himalayas migrate towards the plains. With the advent of these colorful birds, celebration of sama – chakeva is done. This is a festival especially celebrated in mithila.
  • Bihula: Bihula is a prominent festival of eastern Bihar especially famous in Bhagalpur district.
  • Vaishali Fair: It is held in Chitra Trayodashi in Vaishali on the occasion of Mahavir’s birthday. Saurath Fair: Sourath is a village near Madhubani district of Bihar. Here, a fair is held which is also known as Marriage Market that is held in the Jayestha Asasadh month.
  • Malmas Fair: It is organised at Rajgir for taking bath in warm kund (Hot Springs).
  • Baba Brahmeshwarnath Fair: It is organised on Shivratri and Baishakh Krishna Paksh Ekadashi in twice a year at Buxar district, Bihar.

Dances of Bihar

  • Bidesia
  • Paika
  • Jhijhian
  • Kajari Dance

Important National Park and wildlife Sanctuaries in Bihar

  • Valmiki National Park
  • Barela Jheel Salim Ali Bird Wild Life Sanctuary
  • Kaimur Wild Life Sanctuary
  • Kusheshwar Asthan Bird Wild Life Sanctuary
  • Valmiki Wild Life Sanctuary
  • Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Wild Life Sanctuary

List of Monuments of National Importance in Bihar

  • Tomb of Sher Shah Suri: Rohtas
  • Vishnupad Temple, Gaya: Gaya
  • Tomb of Mahmud Shah: Bhagalpur
  • Brahmayoni Hill: Gaya
  • Beguhjam Masjid: Patna
  • Hazarimal Dharamshala: West Champaran

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

  • Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya: 2002
  • Archaeological Site of Nalanda Mahavihara at Nalanda: 2016

Known as/for Bihar

– Birthplace of Buddhism and Jainism
– The capital state of Mauryan dynasty (Magadh)
– Indian state with the least literacy rate
– Bicameral legislature
– Almost 58% of the people in Bihar are below the age of 25, giving Bihar the highest proportion of young people of any Indian state
-The top litchi producing State in the country

A profile of Bihar

Bihar’s antiquity is evident from its name, which is derived from the ancient word “VIHARA” (monastery). It is indeed a land of monasteries. Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Muslim and Sikh shrines abound in this ancient land where India’s first major empires rose and fell. Where the ruins of the worlds’ earliest university slumbers in the void of time. The passage of Ganga, flowing wide and deep enrich the plains of Bihar before distributing in Bengal’s deltoid zone.

Among all Indian states, Bihar is the one most intimately linked to the Buddha’s life, resulting in a trail of pilgrimages which have come to be known as the Buddhist circuit. The Buddhist trail begins at the capital city, Patna, where a noteworthy museum contains a collection of Hindu and Buddhist sculptures as well as a terracotta urn said to contain the ashes of Lord Buddha.

The Khuda Baksh Oriental Library has rare Muslim manuscripts including some from the University of Cordoba in Spain. 40 km away, Vaishali, was the site for the second Buddhist Council is the presence of ruins testify. 90 km south of Patna is Nalanda which translates as the place that confers the lotus’ (of spiritual knowledge). A monastic university   flourished here from the 5th to the 11th century. It is said to have contained nine million books, with 2,000 teachers to impart knowledge to 10,000 students who came from all over the Buddhist world. Lord Buddha himself taught here and Hieun Tsang, the 7th century Chinese traveler, was a student. Ongoing excavations have uncovered temples, monasteries and lecture halls. Rajgir, ‘the royal palace’, 12 km south, was the venue for the first Buddhist Council.

The Buddha spent five years at Rajgir after having attained enlightenment, and many of the remains at Rajgir commemorate various incidents related to life of Buddha, the hill of Gridhrakuta being perhaps the most important, as this is where the Buddha delivered most of his sermons. Bodhgaya is the spot where Lord Buddha attained enlightenment, with the Mahabodhi Temple marking the precise location. This landlocked state of Bihar is surrounded by Nepal, Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and comprises four cultural regions-Bhojpur, Mithila and Magadha and Chotanagpur. Rivers Kosi and Gandak from the north and Sone from the south join the Ganga. In the fertile plains, rice, sugarcane, oilseeds, gram, maize, jute, barley and wheat are cultivated.

A Brief History of Bhojpuri Film


The first Bhojpuri Film was ‘Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Charaihbo’ which was released in 1961 by Vishwanath Shahabadi. Other films like ‘Jekra Charanwa mein lagal paranwa’, ‘Lage Nahi Chhute Ram, ‘Bhauji’, ‘Bidesia’, and ‘Loha Singh’ came later and did reasonably good business.


Later on in 1978, Ashok Jain gave a mush needed fillip to Bhojpuri Film with Sliver Jubalee Film ‘Dangal’. The respected actor Nazir Hussain also produced a very memorable film ‘Balam Pardesia’ 


The 80’s showered the Bhojpuri people with many notable as well as run of the mill film like ‘Bitia Bhail Sayan’ ,  ‘Chandwa ke take Chakor’, ‘Hamar Bhauji’, Ganga Kinare Mora Gaon’ – A very Popular Film, ‘Sonwa ke Pinjra’, ‘Senur’, ‘Ganga Ghat’, ‘Saiyya Tere Karan’, ‘Dharati Maiyya’ – Again a super success, ‘Ganag Maiyya Bhar de Ancharwa hamar’, ‘Piya Nirmohiya’, ‘Sampoorna Tirth Yatra’, ‘Bhaiya Dooj’, ‘ Bansuriya Baje’, ‘Ganga Ke Tir’, ‘Bairi sawan’, ‘Dulha Ganga par ke’, Ganga Mare Laheria etc…


Data not available but the production of Bhojpuri Film is not encouraging in this decade.

ProducersAshok Jain is the leading producer of the Bhojpuri Films. Vishwanath Shahabadi, Nazir Hussain, Mohan ji Prasad, Dilip Bose, K Pervez, Akabar Balm, Prem Kumar Dutta are very notable and successful Bhojpuri film maker.