Falgu River

Falgu River-Bihar
About:
Falgu (often Phalgu) River is one of the tributaries of the river Ganges. Gaya and Bodh Gaya are the most famous and important locations on the banks of the Falgu River. Gaya is a sacred city for Hindus, and Bodh Gaya is one of the holiest places for the Buddhists. In certain ancient texts, Falgu River finds mention as the Niranjana River.There is reference to the city of Gaya and the Falgu River in the Hindu epic of Ramayana. Hindu mythology states that Sita who was wife of Lord Rama has cursed the Falgu River.  

This is an interesting story and the mythology states that on account of this curse, Falgu River lost its water, and the river is simply a vast stretch of sand dunes.An eye witness accountof Falgu River state: “Across the road was the Falgu river, a mile wide, flatter and drier than the Sahara.” But the mass of water is available below the sand dunes. If one digs even a meter, the water seeps out and a small crater full of water is formed. In some places, water flows are also available.
Location info:
Address:Falgu River,Gaya,Bihar,India
District: Gaya
Nearest City: Gaya
Best time to visit: December to January
Climate/Weather:
Winter the lowest temperatures being 5 to 10 degrees Celsius. Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer from 40 to 45 degrees Celsius. April to mid June are the hot months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October & November and February & March have pleasant climate.
History:
Hindus from the point of view of salvation to the souls of ancestors (a ritual called pindadanam). According to Ramayana, when Lord Rama came to Gaya along with Sita for pitrupaksha (or to perform pindadanam), Sita cursed the Falgu River following some disobedience on the part of the river. The mythology states that on account of this curse, Falgu River lost its water, and the river is simply a vast stretch of sand dunes.
Interesting things to do:
 
Interesting things to Visit:
Vishnupad Mandir:
The Vishnupada Mandir is the 220 year old temple in Gaya, India. It is a Hindu temple, dedicated to Lord Vishnu. This temple is located along the Falgu River, marked by a footprint of Lord Vishnu, incised into a block of basalt. The Bhumihar Brahmins have been the traditional priests at Vishnupad Mandir in Gaya as Gayawar Pandas and in the adjoining districts like Hazaribagh

Mahabodhi Temple:
The Mahabodhi Temple Literally: “Great Awakening Temple” is a Buddhist temple in Bodh Gaya, the location where Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha, attained enlightenment. Bodh Gaya is located about 96 km (60 miles) from Patna, Bihar state, India. Next to the temple, to its western side, is the holy Bodhi tree. In the Pali Canon, the site is called Bodhimanda,and the monastery there the Bodhimanda Vihara. The tallest tower is 180 ft tall.
Mobile range info:
 
How to reach?
Nearest Railway Station:Bodh Gaya railway station at the distance of 17 kilometers
Nearest Airport:Bodh Gaya airport at the distance of 17 kilometers
Road Transport:Besides a good network Bodh Gaya is well connected by roads to various cities of India. The main bus stand is near Sujata Bridge on the bank of Falgu River on the northeastern edge of the town. Gaya is the nearest transport hub which is connected with Grand Trunk Road and from where you can catch direct busses to reach Patna, Nalanda, Rajgir and Varanasi. Bihar State Tourism Development Corporation also runs buses from Patna- Bodhgaya route twice a day.
Nearest Visiting places:
Bodhgaya:
Bodhgaya is located in southern part of Bihar. Situated on the banks of Falgu river, a tributary of river Ganga, Bodhgaya is at a distance of 113 kms from Bihar’s capital city of Patna. Bodhgaya is regarded as one of the four holiest places of Buddhism. It is here that Lord Buddha received enlightenment some 2500 years ago. Emperor Ashoka had also built some important Buddhist monuments at Bodhgaya. Tourists cutting across religious lines visit Bodhgaya in large numbers from all parts of the world to pay obeisance to Lord Buddha. Devotees also come to Bodhgaya to engage in Buddhist studies and enroll for courses on Buddhist meditation.  

Gaya:
The ancient town of Gaya, located 100 kms south of Patna, is of great significance to Hindus and Budhhists. It is on the bank of Phalgu river. Here Lord Budhha preached the essence of life and Lord Vishnu preached the reality of death. It is believed that this place has been blessed by Lord Vishnu with purificatory powers to the “Atma”.The well known Vishnupad temple is situated at Andhargaya on the bank of river Phalgu and about 3 Kms from the heart of the town whereas Bodhi briksha (Bodhi tree) and Mahabodhi temple is situated at Bodhgaya which is about 11/ 13 Kms from the heart of the town.Legend has it that a gentle demon named Gaya, appalled by the sorrow caused by death, complained to Vishnu, and as protest died for the world. Impressed by his resolve, Vishnu blessed Gaya with the power to absolve sinners. Like Varanasi, and many other riverside towns, Gaya is a “tirtha” – a crossing across the celestial divide.

Pawapuri:
Pawapuri is also known as Apapuri, it is believed that all sins for a devout Jain end here. Lord Mahavira who was the last Tirthankar breathed his last here around 500 B.C and was cremated on the bank of a large lake, overflowing with beautiful lotuses. Pawapuri, the place where Lord Mahavira, the founder of Jainism, attained his enlightenment is located 38 kms from Rajgir and 90 kms from Patna.Legend has it that after the cremation of Mahavira, in order to meet the demand for his ashes, a large amount of soil was removed from around the funeral pyre, creating the water-tank. The beautiful marble Jalmandir was later built in the middle of the tank. Jal Mandir, the white marble temple in the middle of this lake, blooming with beautiful lotus flowers affords a breathtakingly enchanting sight. A large number of Jain pilgrims throng here. Samosharan, another Jain temple, is also located here. There are five other temples in the vicinity.

Vaishali:
The world’s first democracy with a duly elected council– Vajji, had its seat of administration in Vaishali. Being associated with Buddha and Jain Tirthankars, Vaishali has emerged as a historical and scenic place. Lord Buddha came thrice here and also gave his last sermon at Vaishali. Amrapali, a courtesan, gifted a mango grove to Buddha and later she became a Buddhist nun. Vaishali was also the venue for the second Buddhist council, 100 years after the death of Buddha.Vaishali is also considered to be the birthplace of Jain Tirthankar, Mahavira, by the Swetambar sect of Jains. Many historical monuments and material were found in the excavations at Vaishali

Barabar caves:
The Barabar caves, generally found in the shape of a cottage or hut, open on one side with other three sides walled with stone. With their interiors smooth and soothing, these caves also served as retreats for the Jain and Buddhist monks. Among the Buddhist caves, the Lomas Rishi cave is the finest example of the world famous Indian Buddhist Chaitya arch style.

Barabar hills:
Barabar hills located at a distance of 20 kilometers from Gaya in Bihar, comprises numerous temples constructed from black granite stones. Built for the first time during Ashoka’s reign with contributions in the later period also, these caves look like wood from a distance.

Nagarjuna caves:
The Nagarjuna caves, large in size, depicts the Jataka tales. An excellent work of architecture, these caves includes bow shaped arches at the entrance, circular halls and mini caves, all polished from inside. The Sudama cave, a two chambered structure with polished interiors, is the perfect example of this type of cave. Towards the north of the Sudama cave lies Karan Choper or Supriya cave, which is a single chambered structure with a vaulted roof and small gate. Secondly, the caves of the five Pandavas form another part of the Barabar caves. THese caves, used by five brothers, the Pandavas in their exile in the Mahabharata period, are small in size.

Swarna Bhandar: 
The Swarna Bhandar or the King Bimbisara’s treasury, is also known as the twin rock cut caves in Rajgir. a major tourist destination, two cave chambers were hollowed out of a single massive rock, one of which is believed to have been the guards’ room. The rear wall or the doorway which has two straight vertical lines and one horizontal line cut into the rock, is supposed to lead to king Bimbisara’s treasury. The inscriptions carved on the wall in Sankhalipi or shell script has not be deciphered yet and considered to be the clue to open the golden treasury.
Nearest Petrol Pump:
Petrol Pump:Nawada,Bihar,India
Hotels/Lodge/Accommodation:
Hotel Pankaj:Tekari Road,Gaya,Bihar,India,ph:09955811250

Lotus Nikko Bodhgaya Hotel:Bodhgaya Bihar,India   Vasundhara Hotel:Gaya,Bihar,India
Things to carry:
 
Tips & Suggestions:
 
Help Line/Phone Number:
Police Station:100
Nearest Hospital:
Sadar Hospital:Khagaria,Bihar,India
Sadar Hosiptal:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Refinery Township Hospital:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Society/Community Phone Number:
Link:www.en.wikipedia.org

Gandaki River

Gandaki River-Bihar
About:
The present capital of the state of Bihar and the erstwhile capital of the mighty Mauryan Empire, the historical city of Patna is located at the meeting point of the Rivers Ganga and Sone. There are many Tourist Attractions in Patna and visitors are sure to enjoy any sight seeing tour of the city that covers these various Tourist Attractions in Patna.  

The river flows across the Gangetic plain of Bihar state and eventually merges with the Ganga near at Hajipur or Patna. The entry point of the river at the Indo-Nepal border is at the convergence of Gandak, known as Triveni. Here, the rivers meet with Pachnad and Sonha also sliding into India from Nepal. Pandai River flows into the Indian state of Bihar from Nepal in the eastern end of the Valmiki Sanctuary and finally meets Masan. The drainage area of this river in India is 7620 sqkm. After the river enters India at Triveni, it flows for an extended length of 300 km and then joins the Ganga. Before merging with the river Ganga near Patna, it flows through the districts of Champaran, Sarang and Muzaffarpur. The total length of the Gandak River is 630 km out of which 330 km flows in Nepal and Tibet.  

The river is joined by Rahught Khola at Galeshwor at the south of the gorge, Myagdi Khola at Beni, Modi Khola near Kushma and Badigaad at Rudrabeni. The river then takes a right-angle turn and runs east. The largest hydroelectricity project in Nepal is located along this stretch of the river. A major tributary, Trishuli, at Devighat, joins Kali Gandaki just as the river exits the foothills of the Himalayas into the southern plains of Nepal. Masryangdi is a major tributary of Trisuli. From Devighat, the river flows southwest and is called Narayani or Sapt Gandaki. The river then meanders back towards the southeast and enters India.
Location info:
Address:Gandaki River,Patana,Bihar,India
District: Patna
Nearest City: Patna
Best time to visit: October to February
Climate/Weather:
Summer: 43 °C – 30 °C, Winter: 21.4 °C – 5 °C
History:
In the history of ancient India edited by Mc Krindle, there was a river called Amystis that flows past a town called Katadupa, in the days of Megasthenes. Another historian Wilfred opines that Amystis is modern day Ajay.[4] In recent times there has been exploration of the remains of an ancient civilisation similar to that of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Pandu Rajar Dhibi in the lower Ajay valley.There has been at least 14 recorded floods in the 20th century in the Ajay river. The lower reaches of the river have embankments to prevent flooding.  
Interesting things to do:
Religious significance:
The ancient Valmiki Ashram and surrounding temples are located nearby and a desired pilgrimage. It is said that Valmiki Rishi wrote the great epic, “Ramayana” here. It is also believed to be the birthplace of Luv & Kush, the two sons of Lord Ram and his wife Sita. Saligrama Sila and Mukthinath are places of worship, where the stones are collected from the bed of Gandak River at a place close to the Mustang district of Nepal. It is also a sacred place for Buddhists, who call it Chumig Gyatsa, which in Tibetan means `Hundred Waters`. These stones are naturally formed round stones, with circular or spiral markings and are fossil ammonite stones. These stones are like ocean sediments, which have been uplifted to the top of the Himalayas. Other places of worship near this river are Muktinath-Chumig Gyatsa, Chakra-Tirtha, Nepali Mandir at Hajipur, Jamia Masjid, Vaishali and many more.
Interesting things to Visit:
Valmiki temple:
A Valmiki temple is called an Ashram, which means a hermitage or monastery. It is the communal house for Valmikis. The function of the Ashram is to serve as a center for building up the commitment of devotee’s and for transmitting the Ramayana’s message, and the focal point for the whole community to preserve their culture and traditions.The Ashram is open to all who wish to enter, anyone who goes to the Ashram is welcome to stay as long as they wish and are welcome regardless of race, gender, caste or creed.  

Kutagarshala: 
It lies at a distance of 3 kilometers from the main town and was constructed by the Lichchavis for Sakhamuni. A large tank, open courtyard and verandah are all that is left of this once famous monastery. In the north of this very site is the Ashokan pillar to commemorate the place where Buddha delivered his last sermon.Amvara or Amrapali’s mango grove: Amrapali the famous courtesan gifted here mango orchard Amvara to the Buddhist Sangha after she heard Buddha delivered his sermon.The ruins of Kings Vishala’s fort from whom the town gained its name, is also a major Tourist Attractions in Vaishali. Abhisekh Puskarini is the sacred coronation tank. The Japanese temple built by Nipponzan Myohoji sect of Japan is another interesting place in Vaishali.

Sonepur: 
A small sleepy town close to Hazipur, Sonepur comes alive every year on Kartik Purnima when one of the largest cattle fairs of Asia is organised. A whole lot of people turn up to be a part of this fair from both India and abroad. The Bihar state Tourism Development Corportaions make accommodation arrangements in traditional huts for visitors coming to this fair.

Muzaffarpur: 
Muzaffarpur is located 35 km from Vaishali and is also known as the lychee kingdom. In ancient times, it is believed, Muzaffarpur, along with the modern district of Champaran and Darbhanga, formed the Lichchavi kingdom. Today, the city is one of the most important one in north Bihar and has plenty of historical sites in closeby areas to roam around.
Mobile range info:
 
How to reach?
Nearest Railway Station:The railway station of Patna is located in the main line of the Eastern Railway. It is well linked with almost all the important cities of the country and most of the cities in Bihar.
Nearest Airport:Patna airport is well connected with almost all the major cities in India. Indian Airlines and a number of private airlines operate out of Patna.
Road Transport:Patna falls on the National Highway No 30. Patna is well connected to the key cities within the state as well as the country.
Nearest Visiting places:
Valmiki National Park:
Valmiki National Park of India are located just beside each other in the area of Valmikinagar around the Gandak Barrage. The park encompasses an area of 932 km²and is the oldest national park of Nepal established in 1973.Valmiki National Park and Tiger Reserve is another park located on the banks of this river. Valmiki sanctuary covers about 800 km² of forest and is the 18th Tiger Reserve of the country and ranked fourth in terms density of Tiger population.Valmikinagar is also a well-inhabited town located in the northernmost part of the West Champaran district, bordering Nepal. The floral and faunal composition of this park with the prime protected carnivores in the National Conservation Programme of the Project Tiger in the year 1994 was remarkable. As per Zoological Survey of India`s report of 1998 the Sanctuary is known to have 53 mammals, 145 birds, 26 reptile and 13 amphibians.  

Gol Ghar:
This bee hive shaped granary was built in the year 1770 after the outbreak of a terrible famine. It is one of the oldest British structures in the city and once you reach its top after climbing a series of steps, you will get a good view of the River Ganges and the city.This enormous beehive-shaped structure was constructed as a state granary. A series of surrounding steps lead to the top of this huge building that commands a nice view of the river Ganges and Patna city.

Harmandirji:
Built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, this dome shaped structure houses many Sikh scriptures and personal belongings of Guru Gobind Singh.The shrine was built to consecrate the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru (prophet). Many Sikh scriptures and the personal belongings of the prophet are preserved in this dome-shaped structure.

Kumhrar: 
Nearly 5km away from Patna, this is the site of ancient Mauryan capital Patalipra. A huge 80-pillared hall of the Mauryan dynasty is an important find from the excavation.An archaeologist’s delight, this spot is marked by a huge 80 pillared hall. It is actually the ruins of Ashokan Pataliputra which in its heyday was comparable to Venice of the East.

Jalan Museum: 
The Museum has been constructed at the site of the fort of Sher Shah. The personal museum preserves a great collection of jade, Chinese paintings and silver filigree work of the Mughal period.The personal collection of Diwan Bahadur Radhakrishnan Jalan is housed in this museum. The jade collection, the beautiful Chinese paintings and the exquisite filigree work of the Mughal period form a part of its excellent repertoire.

Agam Kuan: 
This archeological remains of a deep well is one of the major tourist attractions in Patna. It is believed to be associated with the time of Ashoka.Believed to date back to the Ashokan period, this deep well draws a large number of visitors.

Patna Museum :
Locally known as the Jadu Ghar, this museum houses an amazing collection of bronze sculptures and terracotta figures. Its most precious object is the Didarganj Yakshi.The museum displays a prized collection of archaeological finds from different sites in Bihar. Metal and stone sculptures of the Maurya and Gupta Periods, terracotta figurines, ashes of the Buddha and a 16meters long fossilized tree feature among the exhibits. Patna Museum. The museum boasts of an amazing collection of Buddhist art, dating back to somewhere around 8th century AD to 12th century AD. The most magnificent pieces of art consist of the statues of Avalokitesvara and Maitreya. Apart from that, the city also houses some large pillars and the foundations of a Buddhist Monastery, known as Anand.
Nearest Petrol Pump:
Petrol Pump:Bhagalpur,Bihar,India
Hotels/Lodge/Accommodation:
Nand Hotel:Sabzi Market,Saharsa,Bihar,India  
Satkar Hotel:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Sana Rest House:Saharsa,Bihar,India

Ganga River

Ganga river-Bihar

About:
The Ganges (pronounced,Hindi Ganga hi-Ganga.ogg (listen) (help·info), Devanāgarī: as in most Indian languages) is one of the major rivers of the Indian subcontinent, flowing east through the Gangetic Plain of northern India into Bangladesh. The 2,510 km (1,560 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in the Uttarakhand state of India, and drains into the Sunderbans delta in the Bay of Bengal. It has long been considered a holy river by Hindus and worshiped as the goddess Ganga in Hinduism. It has also been important historically: many former provincial or imperial capitals (such as Patliputra, Kannauj, Kara, Allahabad, Murshidabad, and Calcutta) have been located on its banks. Ganga and its tributaries drain a 1,000,000-square-kilometre (390,000 sq mi) fertile basin that supports one of the world’s highest density of humans. The average depth of the river is 52 feet (16 m), and the maximum depth is 100 feet (30 m).  

The Ganges, above all is the river of India, which has held India’s heart captive and drawn uncounted millions to her banks since the dawn of history. The story of the Ganges, from her source to the sea, from old times to new, is the story of India’s civilization and culture, of the rise and fall of empires, of great and proud cities, of adventures.

The Ganga has an exalted position in the Hindu ethos. It is repeatedly invoked in the Vedas, the Puranas, and the two Indian epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Ganga is a goddess, Ganga devi, one of two daughters of Meru (the Himalayas), the other being Uma, consort of Shiva. In her youth, Indra had asked for Ganga to be given to heaven to soothe the Gods with its cool waters. The story of its descent to earth appears in slightly different forms in Ramayana, Mahabharata and in the Puranas. These myths are variously dated between 2000 to 400 BC.

The Ganges has many names associated with its many roles in Sanskrit mythology. Bhagiratha himself is the source of the name Bhagirathi (of Bhagiratha), which is its initial stream, but is also another name for the Hooghly. At one point, Bhagiratha went too close to the sage Jahnu’s meditation site, and the disturbed hermit immediately gulped up all the waters. Eventually, after more persuasion from Bhagiratha, the sage yielded the waters, but Ganges retained the name “Jahnavi”.
Location info:
Address:Ganga river,Munger,Bihar,Gujarat,India
District: Munger
Nearest City: Saharsa
Best time to visit: December to January
Climate/Weather:
Winter the lowest temperatures being 5 to 10 degrees Celsius. Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer from 40 to 45 degrees Celsius. April to mid June are the hot months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October & November and February & March have pleasant climate.
History:
High up in the Garhwal Himalayas lies the Gangotri glacier, bearing ice believed to be 400 years old. The mighty Ganga (also Ganges) emerges from beneath this glacier, at a height of 3,959 m above sea level. Here she is known as the Bhagirathi, after the legendary prince Bhagirath who is accredited with bringing her down from heaven to earth.  

Bursting forth at Gaumukh, out of a huge cavern shaped like the mouth of a cow, snow laden and hung with giant icicles, the Bhagirathi goes rushing, sparkling, foaming around chunks of ice that are constantly breaking off from the glacier above. Eighteen kilometers downstream stands Gangotri, which was the source of the river until the glacier melted and retreated to its present position above Gaumukh. From here, onwards the river passes through the whole of north Indian plain covering the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Bangladesh.
Interesting things to do:
Religious significance:
Situated on the banks of River Ganges, Varanasi is considered by some to be the most holy city in Hinduism. The Ganga is mentioned in the Rig-Veda, the earliest of the Hindu scriptures. It appears in the nadistuti (Rig Veda 10.75), which lists the rivers from east to west. In RV 6.45.31, the word Ganga is also mentioned, but it is not clear whether this reference is to the river. Also, people scatter ashes of loved ones here.According to Hindu religion a very famous king Bhagiratha did Tapasya for many years constantly to bring the river Ganga, then residing in the Heavens, down on the Earth to find salvation for his ancestors, who were cursed by a seer. Therefore, Ganga descended to the Earth through the lock of hair (Jata) of god Shiva to make whole earth pious, fertile and wash out the sins of humans. For Hindus in India, the Ganga is not just a river but a mother, a goddess, a tradition, a culture and much more.  
Interesting things to Visit:
Ganga River Basin:
The Ganga River basin is affluent with perennial rivers and streams having special significance in the region it flows. Some of the important rivers in the Ganga River Basin are as followsThe approximately 260 km long distributary of the Ganges River in West Bengal, India. The river divides from the Ganges as a canal in Murshidabad District at the Farakka Barrage. The town of Hugli-Chinsura was formerly known as Hooghly. This town is located on the river, in the Hooghly (district). The origins of the name of Hooghly River are not known, whether the city or the river derived the name first.  
Mobile range info:
 
How to reach?
Nearest Railway Station:Bhagalpur Junction Railway Station
Nearest Airport: Patna Airport
Road Transport:National Highway numbers 2, 23, 28, 30, 31 and 33 make Bihar accessible by road too.
Nearest Visiting places:
Bodhi Tree:
This tree is worshipped as holy, divine and as a giver of enlightenment and wisdom. It is under this banyan tree (a pipal tree) that Lord Buddha meditated after renouncing all worldly pleasures and attained wisdom and divine enlightenment.The present Bodhi Tree is probably the fifth succession of the original tree under which the Buddha had attained enlightenment. Vajrasana (the posture in which he meditated), the seat of stability, is a stone platform on which the Buddha is supposed to have sat in meditation gazing east, under the Bodhi tree.

Mahabodhi Temple:
Buddhism is today a world renowned religion. It is this temple that witnessed the divine enlightenment of Gautama Siddartha who renounced all worldly pleasures to find the answers to the questions that stirred his soul. He meditated under a pipal tree here and attained insight and wisdom that he preached to the world. This tree is also referred to as the “Bodhi tree”. A visit to this holy place will explain to you why the UNESCO declared it as a World heritage site in the year 2002.The Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya built around 6th-7th centuries, is the largest but is a later structure constructed on the site of the Bodhi Shrine of Buddha. This temple was constructed by the famous Emperor Asoka who embraced Buddhism after feeling guilty of leading a life of war and destruction.
The temple is 170 ft high consisting of nine storeys of pyramidal towers. The structure has a stupa shaped dome at the top. At the base of the main tower are four towers at each of the four corners. On the edifice are several niches with Buddha images depicting scenes from his life. As you enter the temple you can see the main shrine which is built where Buddha attained Enlightenment. The place is called “the Navel of the Earth” (puthavinabhim) where Buddha gained wisdom, knowledge and light and later experienced this joy of liberation for the next seven days sitting there.

TARA STHAN:
It is situated at a distance of about 16 Kms west of Saharsa in village Mahishi where an ancient temple of Bhagwati Tara is built. The idol of Bhagwati Tara is said to be very old and draws devotees from far and wide. On either side of the main deity, there are two smaller female deities which are worshipped by the people as Ekjata nad Nil Saraswati.

Chandika Sthan at BIRATPUR
Biratpur village under Sonebarsa block of this district is famous for an ancient temple of goddess Chandi. This village is also associated with King Birat of the Mahabharat age. During exile the Pandavas had lived here for 12 years.The tantric Scholars and devotees attach much significance to this Chandi temple, which is said to form an equilateral triangle (TRIK) WITH Katyayani temple near Dhamhara ghat and Tara temple at Mahishi. During the Navratra people from distant places visit the village to offer prayers to the goddess of power.

Madan Bharti Asthan: 
The place is situated in Mahishi Block. It is said that a religious discourse (Shastrath) was held between Shankaracharya and the local scholar Mandan Mishra. Bharti, wife of Madan Mishra, who was also a great scholar, was named as Judge for the discourse. It is also said that Shankaracharya, after his initial victory over Madan Mishra was challenged by Bharati, was outwitted by her and he (accepted defeat).

SUN Temple at Kandaha
Like Deb (in Aurangabad district), the SUN Temple at Kandaha village is an important religious and historical place which has been duly recognized by the Archaeological Survey of India. The idol of sun god riding seven horsed chariot, has been carved on a single granite slab. At the door of the sanctum sanctorum, there are inscriptions which a deciphered by historians, confirm that this sun temple was built during the period of king Narsimha Deo of Karnata dynasty who ruled over Mithila in the 12th century. It is said that a brutal Mughal emperor named Kalapahad had damaged the temple which was however renovated by the famous saint poet Laxminath Gosai.

Laxminath Gosai Sthal at Bangoan
The famous saint and poet of which is hardly 9 Km away from the district head quarter. The huge bunyan tree under which the remains of Gosaiji have been preserved is the centre of great reverence for the people of the district.

Dewan Ban Mandir: 
One Shiv Ling is established in the temple situated in Sahpur-Manjhoul of Nauhatta block. It is said that the Ling was established by Maharaja Shalivahan some time in 100BC. The Hindus celebrate a festival called jitiya after the name of Jimutbahan who was the son of Maharaja Shalivahan. Description of this place is found in Shri Puran. The ancient shrine at Dewan Ban was washed away by the turbulent Koshi river. The local people have however build another temple in the adjacent area.

Nauhatta: 
It is an old village, important since the time of Mughals and is presently the head quarters of the block of the same name. The village has a ‘Shiva temple’ about 80 feet in height. The temple which was damaged in the earthquake of 1934 was reconstructed by Raja Srinand Singh of Srinagar Estate. There is a grave of Madho Singh on an earthen mound about 50 feet high. Madho Singh had become a martyr in the battle of Ladri Ghat. Offerings are made on he rave both by Hindus and Muslims.

Glacier lakes:
At present, in the Himalayan region, glaciers are melting and retreating resulting in formation of lakes insecurely dammed by ice or moraines. These dams are at risk of failing, causing a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) with flows as great as 10,000 cubic meters a second. Such floods are likely to destroy communication systems and various infrastructures like bridges roads, hydropower projects (directly or indirectly), foot trails, villages, fields and terraces, irrigation canals, and could cost hundreds or even thousands of lives. Such floods also transport huge amounts of sediment. In the past two decades GLOF has become a topic of intense discussion within the development community in Nepal. Studies of the glaciers and glacier lakes were carried out in 1988 by a joint Sino-Nepalese team. In the Arun-Koshi river basin, there are 737 glaciers in Tibet and 229 glacier lakes, out of which 24 glacier lakes are potentially dangerous. Similarly, there are 45 glacier lakes in the Sun-Koshi basin, out of which 10 are potentially dangerous.

Koshi Tappu Wildlife:
Koshi Tappu Wildlife reserve is a wetland situated in the flood plains of the Sapta-Koshi River in Nepal’s Eastern Terai. Gazette-notified as a wildlife reserve in 1976, it covers a reserve area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi) and is one of the Outstanding Important Bird Areas in the Indo-Gangetic grasslands. The park has large population of Swamp Francolin, breeding Bristled Grass-warbler, records of White-throated Bushchat and Finn’s Weaver.[10] The Koshi river forms the major landmark of the reserve and is home to 80 fish species, around 441 species of birds, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, 20 ducks and 2 ibises. The endangered swamp partridge and Bengal florican are also found here. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting-place for migratory birds (87 nos winter visitors). In view of its rich biodiversity it was declared a Ramsar site of international significance in 1987.[11] The endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin locally known as sons in Bihar and a further endangered species (freshwater dolphin) have been recorded in the river.

Sagarmatha National park:
Sagarmatha National park is located in eastern Nepal, including parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest. The park, which is also included as a UNESCO world heritage site, was created on 19 July 1976. Sagarmatha in Sanskrit means “Forhead of Universe” (Sagar: Sky or Heavens; Matha: Forhead) and is the modern Nepali name for Mount Everest. The park covers an area of 1,148 km2 (443 sq mi) and ranges in elevation from its lowest point of 2,845 m (9,330 ft) at Jorsalle to 8,848 m (29,030 ft) at the summit of Mount Everest (highest peak in the world).[8] Other peaks above 6,000 m (20,000 ft) are Lhotse, Cho-Oyu, Thamserku, Nuptse, Amadablam, and Pumori. The upper watershed of the Dudh Koshi river basin system lies in the park. The types of plants and animals that are found in the park depend on the altitude.
Basin:
From Katmandu, there is a road for some distance followed by trekking paths to Mt Everest, which crosses four major tributaries of the Koshi. Namche Bazar near Tibet border in Nepal (near southern base camp of Mt Everest) is the major tourist centre in the mountainous part of the Koshi belt. Birātnagar in Nepal and Purnia and Katihār in India are major cities on the Koshi Plains. Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries like Bhutahi Balān.
Legend:
Formerly Kauśiki (named after sage Viśvāmitra because Viśvāmitra is said to have attained the status of Vedic ṛṣi or Rishi on its banks; Viśvāmitra was descendant of sage Kuśika and was called Kauśika in Rgveda), in Nepal and Bihar in northern India is a major tributary of the Ganges (one major tributary of the Koshi is the Arun, a major part of whose course is in Tibet). This river is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata as Kauśiki. Seven Koshis join together to form the Saptakoshi River/Sapt Koshi which is popularly known as the Koshi.It is also the lifeline of the Mithila region, today spread over more than half of India’s state of Bihar, and parts of adjoining Nepal and it forms the basis of legend and folklore of the region; the legend of Mithila extends over many centuries. Mithila is also the name of a style of Hindu art created in the Mithila area.
Nearest Petrol Pump:
IO Petrol Pump:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Hotels/Lodge/Accommodation:
Anand Hotel:Sabzi Market,Saharsa,Bihar,India  
Satkar Hotel:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Sana Rest House:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Things to carry:
 
Tips & Suggestions:
 
Help Line/Phone Number:
Police Station:100
Nearest Hospital:
Sadar Hospital:Khagaria,Bihar,India
Sadar Hosiptal:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Refinery Township Hospital:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Society/Community Phone Number:
Link:www.conservation.mongabay.com

Koshi River

Koshi River-Bihar
About:
Koshi River and several such rivers of east and north Bihar are typical examples of our casual approach both by local authorities and the government. It is surprising to note that a majority of IAS/IPS officers in India hail from northern and eastern parts of Bihar, which every year is facing an acute problem of floods. Probably the lack of conviction for the state is the reason, which otherwise prevails in cadres of other states. Otherwise they would have drawn up plans for a permanent solution of their states recurring problem.  

The Kosi River, called Koshi in Nepal a transboundary river between Nepal and India and is one of the largest tributaries of the Ganges. The river, along with its tributaries, drains a total area of 69,300 km2 (26,800 sq mi) up to its confluence with the Ganges in India (29,400 km2/11,400 sq mi in China, 30,700 km2/11,900 sq mi in Nepal and 9,200 km2/3,600 sq mi in India). The watershed also includes part of Tibet, such as the Mount Everest region, and the eastern third of Nepal. The river basin is surrounded by the ridges separating it from the Brahmaputra in the north, the Gandaki in the west, the Mahananda in the east, and by the Ganges in the south. The river is joined by major tributaries, approximately 48 km (30 mi) north of the Indo-Nepal border, breaking into more than twelve distinct channels with shifting courses due to flooding.Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries like Bhutahi Balān.

Instead of taking the natural way of solving the problem and tackling the problem of the changing change of these small rivers the authorities and governments of this beleaguered state have been creating only bunds to stop the flow of rivers. They are not going into the root cause of this recurring problem, which has come to a stage, which is going to create irreparable losses to the people of Bihar and its poor economy. Crores of rupees have been wasted on paper on creating the bunds, but the problem will mount every year.
Location info:
Address:Koshi River, Munger ,Bihar,India
District: Munger
Nearest City: Saharsa
Best time to visit: December to January
Climate/Weather:
Winter the lowest temperatures being 5 to 10 degrees Celsius. Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer from 40 to 45 degrees Celsius. April to mid June are the hot months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October & November and February & March have pleasant climate.
History:
Over the last 250 years, the Kosi River has shifted its course over 120 kilometres (75 mi) from east to west.And the unstable nature of the river is attributed to the heavy silt which it carries during the monsoon season. Flooding in India has extreme effects. India is second in the world after Bangladesh in deaths due to flooding, accounting for one fifth of global flooding deaths. The Kosi River (The Sorrow of Bihar) is one of two major tributaries, the other river being Gandak, draining the plains of north Bihar, the most flood-prone area of India
Interesting things to do:
Fishing:
The Koshi and other rivers draining the Himalayas have populations of Mahseer which are esteemed as gamefish and known as Indian Salmon. Mahseer can weigh up to 50 kg. and are said to put up a greater battle than any other type of fish of equivalent weight. They will take tied streamer flies as well as bait.
Interesting things to Visit:
Glacier lakes:
At present, in the Himalayan region, glaciers are melting and retreating resulting in formation of lakes insecurely dammed by ice or moraines. These dams are at risk of failing, causing a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) with flows as great as 10,000 cubic meters a second. Such floods are likely to destroy communication systems and various infrastructures like bridges roads, hydropower projects (directly or indirectly), foot trails, villages, fields and terraces, irrigation canals, and could cost hundreds or even thousands of lives. Such floods also transport huge amounts of sediment.   In the past two decades GLOF has become a topic of intense discussion within the development community in Nepal. Studies of the glaciers and glacier lakes were carried out in 1988 by a joint Sino-Nepalese team. In the Arun-Koshi river basin, there are 737 glaciers in Tibet and 229 glacier lakes, out of which 24 glacier lakes are potentially dangerous. Similarly, there are 45 glacier lakes in the Sun-Koshi basin, out of which 10 are potentially dangerous.

Koshi Tappu Wildlife:
Koshi Tappu Wildlife reserve is a wetland situated in the flood plains of the Sapta-Koshi River in Nepal’s Eastern Terai. Gazette-notified as a wild life reserve in 1976, it covers a reserve area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi) and is one of the Outstanding Important Bird Areas in the Indo-Gangetic grasslands. The park has large population of Swamp Francolin, breeding Bristled Grass-warbler, records of White-throated Bushchat and Finn’s Weaver.[10] The Koshi river forms the major landmark of the reserve and is home to 80 fish species, around 441 species of birds, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, 20 ducks and 2 ibises. The endangered swamp partridge and Bengal florican are also found here. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting-place for migratory birds (87 nos winter visitors). In view of its rich biodiversity it was declared a Ramsar site of international significance in 1987.[11] The endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin locally known as sons in Bihar and a further endangered species (freshwater dolphin) have been recorded in the river.

Sagarmatha National park:
Sagarmatha National park is located in eastern Nepal, including parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest. The park, which is also included as a UNESCO world heritage site, was created on 19 July 1976. Sagarmatha in Sanskrit means “Forhead of Universe” (Sagar: Sky or Heavens; Matha: Forhead) and is the modern Nepali name for Mount Everest. The park covers an area of 1,148 km2 (443 sq mi) and ranges in elevation from its lowest point of 2,845 m (9,330 ft) at Jorsalle to 8,848 m (29,030 ft) at the summit of Mount Everest (highest peak in the world).[8] Other peaks above 6,000 m (20,000 ft) are Lhotse, Cho-Oyu, Thamserku, Nuptse, Amadablam, and Pumori. The upper watershed of the Dudh Koshi river basin system lies in the park. The types of plants and animals that are found in the park depend on the altitude.
Basin:
From Katmandu, there is a road for some distance followed by trekking paths to Mt Everest, which crosses four major tributaries of the Koshi. Namche Bazar near Tibet border in Nepal (near southern base camp of Mt Everest) is the major tourist centre in the mountainous part of the Koshi belt. Birātnagar in Nepal, and Purnia and Katihār in India are major cities on the Koshi Plains. Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries like Bhutahi Balān.
Legend:
Formerly Kauśiki (named after sage Viśvāmitra because Viśvāmitra is said to have attained the status of Vedic ṛṣi or Rishi on its banks; Viśvāmitra was descendant of sage Kuśika and was called Kauśika in Rgveda), in Nepal and Bihar in northern India is a major tributary of the Ganges (one major tributary of the Koshi is the Arun, a major part of whose course is in Tibet). This river is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata as Kauśiki. Seven Koshis join together to form the Saptakoshi River/Sapt Koshi which is popularly known as the Koshi.It is also the lifeline of the Mithila region, today spread over more than half of India’s state of Bihar, and parts of adjoining Nepal and it forms the basis of legend and folklore of the region; the legend of Mithila extends over many centuries. Mithila is also the name of a style of Hindu art created in the Mithila area.
Mobile range info:
 
How to reach?
Nearest Railway Station:Bhagalpur Junction Railway Station
Nearest Airport:Patna Airport
Road Transport:National Highway numbers 2, 23, 28, 30, 31 and 33 make Bihar accessible by road too.
Nearest Visiting places:
Bodhi Tree:
This tree is worshipped as holy, divine and as a giver of enlightenment and wisdom. It is under this banyan tree (a pipal tree) that Lord Buddha meditated after renouncing all worldly pleasures and attained wisdom and divine enlightenment.The present Bodhi Tree is probably the fifth succession of the original tree under which the Buddha had attained enlightenment. Vajrasana (the posture in which he meditated), the seat of stability, is a stone platform on which the Buddha is supposed to have sat in meditation gazing east, under the Bodhi tree.  

Mahabodhi Temple:
Buddhism is today a world renowned religion. It is this temple that witnessed the divine enlightenment of Gautama Siddartha who renounced all worldly pleasures to find the answers to the questions that stirred his soul. He meditated under a pipal tree here and attained insight and wisdom that he preached to the world. This tree is also referred to as the “Bodhi tree”. A visit to this holy place will explain to you why the UNESCO declared it as a World heritage site in the year 2002.The Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya built around 6th-7th centuries, is the largest but is a later structure constructed on the site of the Bodhi Shrine of Buddha. This temple was constructed by the famous Emperor Asoka who embraced Buddhism after feeling guilty of leading a life of war and destruction.
The temple is 170 ft high consisting of nine storeys of pyramidal towers. The structure has a stupa-shaped dome at the top. At the base of the main tower are four towers at each of the four corners. On the edifice are several niches with Buddha images depicting scenes from his life. As you enter the temple you can see the main shrine which is built where Buddha attained Enlightenment. The place is called “the Navel of the Earth” (puthavinabhim) where Buddha gained wisdom, knowledge and light and later experienced this joy of liberation for the next seven days sitting there. TARA STHAN:
It is situated at a distance of about 16 Kms west of Saharsa in village Mahishi where an ancient temple of Bhagwati Tara is built. The idol of Bhagwati Tara is said to be very old and draws devotees from far and wide. On either side of the main deity, there are two smaller female deities which are worshipped by the people as Ekjata nad Nil Saraswati.

Chandika Sthan at BIRATPUR
Biratpur village under Sonebarsa block of this district is famous for an ancient temple of goddess Chandi. This village is also associated with King Birat of the Mahabharat age. During exile the Pandavas had lived here for 12 years.The tantric Scholars and devotees attach much significance to this Chandi temple, which is said to form an equilateral triangle (TRIK) WITH Katyayani temple near Dhamhara ghat and Tara temple at Mahishi. During the Navratra people from distant places visit the village to offer prayers to the goddess of power.

Madan Bharti Asthan: 
The place is situated in Mahishi Block. It is said that a religious discourse (Shastrath) was held between Shankaracharya and the local scholar Mandan Mishra. Bharti, wife of Madan Mishra, who was also a great scholar, was named as Judge for the discourse. It is also said that Shankaracharya, after his initial victory over Madan Mishra was challenged by Bharati, was outwitted by her and he (accepted defeat).

SUN Temple at Kandaha
Like Deb (in Aurangabad district), the SUN Temple at Kandaha village is an important religious and historical place which has been duly recognized by the Archaeological Survey of India. The idol of sun god riding seven horsed chariot, has been carved on a single granite slab. At the door of the sanctum sanctorum, there are inscriptions which a deciphered by historians, confirm that this sun temple was built during the period of king Narasimha Deo of Karnata dynasty who ruled over Mithila in the 12th century. It is said that a brutal Mughal emperor named Kalapahad had damaged the temple which was however renovated by the famous saint poet Laxminath Gosai.

Laxminath Gosai Sthal at Bangoan
The famous saint and poet of which is hardly 9 Km away from the district head quarter. The huge bunyan tree under which the remains of Gosaiji have been preserved is the centre of great reverence for the people of the district.

Dewan Ban Mandir: 
One Shiv Ling is established in the temple situated in Sahpur-Manjhoul of Nauhatta block. It is said that the Ling was established by Maharaja Shalivahan some time in 100BC. The Hindus celebrate a festival called jitiya after the name of Jimutbahan who was the son of Maharaja Shalivahan. Description of this place is found in Shri Puran. The ancient shrine at Dewan Ban was washed away by the turbulent Koshi river. The local people have however build another temple in the adjacent area.

Nauhatta: 
It is an old village, important since the time of Mughals and is presently the headquarters of the block of the same name. The village has a ‘Shiva temple’ about 80 feet in height. The temple which was damaged in the earthquake of 1934 was reconstructed by Raja Srinand Singh of Srinagar Estate. There is a grave of Madho Singh on an earthen mound about 50 feet high. Madho Singh had become a martyr in the battle of Ladri Ghat. Offerings are made on he rave both by Hindus and Muslims.

Bihar School of Yoga:
Bihar School of Yoga houses a Yoga Research Library. Comprising of a well-stocked and large collection of books and data, the library is an asset in itself. Here, you will find the school’s publication on Yoga, health techniques and research, apart from other books on yoga. The school, located at Ganga Darshan, is built over a large hill overlooking the Utter-Vahini Ganga. The location of the training is very apt, as it provides the perfect ambience for the establishment of such a training centre.  

Bhimbandh Wild Life Sanctuary:
Occupying an area of about 682 sq km, Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the south-west of Munger District of Bihar. The sanctuary falls to the south of the river Ganges and is at a distance of 56 km from Munger. Besides being famous for its wildlife, the place is also well accounted for its hot water springs. These hot springs are basically found at the valley portion and the foothills of Bhimbandh.

Kharagpur Hills:
Kharagpur, in Munger District of Bihar, is a beautiful town at the foot of Kharagpur Hills. The main attraction of the town is the Ucheshwar Nath, a temple devoted to Lord Shiva. Kharagpur Lake, a large reservoir constructed by the Maharaja of Darbhanga, is just 3 km downtown. Malnipahar and Maruk hills are other spots worth visiting.
Nearest Petrol Pump:
Petrol Pump:Bhagalpur,Bihar,India    
Petrol Pump:Bhagalpur,Bihar,India
Hotels/Lodge/Accommodation:
Anand Hotel:Sabzi Market,Saharsa,Bihar,India  
Satkar Hotel:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Sana Rest House:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Things to carry:
 
Tips & Suggestions:
 
Help Line/Phone Number:
Police Station:100
Nearest Hospital:
Sadar Hospital:Khagaria,Bihar,India
Sadar Hosiptal:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Refinery Township Hospital:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Society/Community Phone Number:
Link:www.en.wikipedia.org

Ajay River

Ajay River-Bihar
About:
Ajay River originates from the hills of Munger in Bihar. It flows through the Deoghar District in Jharkhand, joining with the Pathra and Jainti (Jayanti) rivers and proceeds on its journey through Dumka district to West Bengal. It flows down the plateau fringe, marking the boundary between Bankura and Birbhum districts in West Bengal where it meets the Bhagirathi river at Katwa in Murshidabad.  

It originates on a small hill about 300 metres high, south west of Munger in Bihar. It then flows through Jharkhand and enters West Bengal at Simjuri, near Chittaranjan. It first forms the border between Bardhaman District and Jharkhand and then between Bardhaman District and Birbhum District, and finally, it enters Katwa subdivision of Bardhaman district at Nareng village in Ketugram police station. It then joins the Bhagirathi River at Katwa Town. Total length of the Ajay is 288 km, out of which 152 km is in West Bengal.

The catchment area of Ajay River is 6,000 sq km. The important tributaries of the Ajay are Pathro and Jayanti in Jharkhand and Tumuni and Kunur in Bardhaman district of West Bengal. The upper reaches of the Ajay pass through hilly regions with latté rite soil. It is only from Ausgram in Bardhaman district that the Ajay flows through alluvial plains. The Ajay valley was densely forested with sal, piyasal and palas trees till recent times when mining and other activities led to the clearing of forests.The upper reaches of the Ajay pass through hilly regions with latté rite soil. It is only from Ausgram in Bardhaman district that the Ajay flows through alluvial plains. The Ajay valley was densely forested with sal, piyasal and palas trees till recent times when mining and other activities led to the clearing of forests
Location info:
Address:Ajay River, Munger,Bihar,Gujarat,India
District:Munger
Nearest City: Saharsa
Best time to visit: December to January
Climate/Weather:
Winter the lowest temperatures being 5 to 10 degrees Celsius. Winter months are December and January. It is hot in the summer from 40 to 45 degrees Celsius. April to mid June are the hot months. The monsoon months of June, July, August, and September see good rainfall. October & November and February & March have pleasant climate. 
History:
In the history of ancient India edited by Mc Krindle, there was a river called Amystis that flows past a town called Katadupa, in the days of Megasthenes. Another historian Wilfred opines that Amystis is modern day Ajay. In recent times there has been exploration of the remains of an ancient civilisation similar to that of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Pandu Rajar Dhibi in the lower Ajay valley.There has been at least 14 recorded floods in the 20th century in the Ajay river. The lower reaches of the river have embankments to prevent flooding.  
Interesting things to do:
 
Interesting things to Visit:
Bihar School of Yoga:
Bihar School of Yoga houses a Yoga Research Library. Comprising of a well-stocked and large collection of books and data, the library is an asset in itself. Here, you will find the school’s publication on Yoga, health techniques and research, apart from other books on yoga. The school, located at Ganga Darshan, is built over a large hill overlooking the Utter-Vahini Ganga. The location of the training is very apt, as it provides the perfect ambience for the establishment of such a training centre.  


Bhimbandh Wild Life Sanctuary:
Occupying an area of about 682 sq km, Bhimbandh Wildlife Sanctuary is located in the south-west of Munger District of Bihar. The sanctuary falls to the south of the river Ganges and is at a distance of 56 km from Munger. Besides being famous for its wildlife, the place is also well accounted for its hot water springs. These hot springs are basically found at the valley portion and the foothills of Bhimbandh.

Kharagpur Hills:
Kharagpur, in Munger District of Bihar, is a beautiful town at the foot of Kharagpur Hills. The main attraction of the town is the Ucheshwar Nath, a temple devoted to Lord Shiva. Kharagpur Lake, a large reservoir constructed by the Maharaja of Darbhanga, is just 3 km downtown. Malnipahar and Maruk hills are other spots worth visiting.
Mobile range info:
 
How to reach?
Nearest Railway Station:Bhagalpur Junction Railway Station
Nearest Airport: Patna Airport
Road Transport:National Highway numbers 2, 23, 28, 30, 31 and 33 make Bihar accessible by road too.
Nearest Visiting places:
Bodhi Tree:
This tree is worshipped as holy, divine and as a giver of enlightenment and wisdom. It is under this banyan tree (a pipal tree) that Lord Buddha meditated after renouncing all worldly pleasures and attained wisdom and divine enlightenment.The present Bodhi Tree is probably the fifth succession of the original tree under which the Buddha had attained enlightenment. Vajrasana (the posture in which he meditated), the seat of stability, is a stone platform on which the Buddha is supposed to have sat in meditation gazing east, under the Bodhi tree.  

Mahabodhi Temple:
Buddhism is today a world renowned religion. It is this temple that witnessed the divine enlightenment of Gautama Siddartha who renounced all worldly pleasures to find the answers to the questions that stirred his soul. He meditated under a pipal tree here and attained insight and wisdom that he preached to the world. This tree is also referred to as the “Bodhi tree”. A visit to this holy place will explain to you why the UNESCO declared it as a World heritage site in the year 2002.The Mahabodhi Temple, Bodhgaya built around 6th-7th centuries, is the largest but is a later structure constructed on the site of the Bodhi Shrine of Buddha. This temple was constructed by the famous Emperor Asoka who embraced Buddhism after feeling guilty of leading a life of war and destruction.
The temple is 170 ft high consisting of nine storeys of pyramidal towers. The structure has a stupa shaped dome at the top. At the base of the main tower are four towers at each of the four corners. On the edifice are several niches with Buddha images depicting scenes from his life. As you enter the temple you can see the main shrine which is built where Buddha attained Enlightenment. The place is called “the Navel of the Earth” (puthavinabhim) where Buddha gained wisdom, knowledge and light and later experienced this joy of liberation for the next seven days sitting there.

TARA STHAN:
It is situated at a distance of about 16 Kms west of Saharsa in village Mahishi where an ancient temple of Bhagwati Tara is built. The idol of Bhagwati Tara is said to be very old and draws devotees from far and wide. On either side of the main deity, there are two smaller female deities which are worshipped by the people as Ekjata nad Nil Saraswati.

Chandika Sthan at BIRATPUR: 
Biratpur village under Sonebarsa block of this district is famous for an ancient temple of goddess Chandi. This village is also associated with King Birat of the Mahabharat age. During exile the Pandavas had lived here for 12 years.The tantric Scholars and devotees attach much significance to this Chandi temple, which is said to form an equilateral triangle (TRIK) WITH Katyayani temple near Dhamhara ghat and Tara temple at Mahishi. During the Navratra people from distant places visit the village to offer prayers to the goddess of power.

Madan Bharti Asthan: 
The place is situated in Mahishi Block. It is said that a religious discourse (Shastrath) was held between Shankaracharya and the local scholar Mandan Mishra. Bharti, wife of Madan Mishra, who was also a great scholar, was named as Judge for the discourse. It is also said that Shankaracharya, after his initial victory over Madan Mishra was challenged by Bharati, was outwitted by her and he (accepted defeat).

SUN Temple at Kandaha: 
Like Deb (in Aurangabad district), the SUN Temple at Kandaha village is an important religious and historical place which has been duly recognized by the Archaeological Survey of India. The idol of sun god riding seven horsed chariot, has been carved on a single granite slab. At the door of the sanctum sanctorum, there are inscriptions which a deciphered by historians, confirm that this sun temple was built during the period of king Narsimha Deo of Karnata dynasty who ruled over Mithila in the 12th century. It is said that a brutal Mughal emperor named Kalapahad had damaged the temple which was however renovated by the famous saint poet Laxminath Gosai.

Laxminath Gosai Sthal at Bangoan: 
The famous saint and poet of which is hardly 9 Km away from the district head quarter. The huge bunyan tree under which the remains of Gosaiji have been preserved is the centre of great reverence for the people of the district.

Dewan Ban Mandir: 
One Shiv Ling is established in the temple situated in Sahpur-Manjhoul of Nauhatta block. It is said that the Ling was established by Maharaja Shalivahan some time in 100BC. The Hindus celebrate a festival called jitiya after the name of Jimutbahan who was the son of Maharaja Shalivahan. Description of this place is found in Shri Puran. The ancient shrine at Dewan Ban was washed away by the turbulent Koshi river. The local people have however build another temple in the adjacent area.

Nauhatta: 
It is an old village, important since the time of Mughals and is presently the head quarters of the block of the same name. The village has a ‘Shiva temple’ about 80 feet in height. The temple which was damaged in the earthquake of 1934 was reconstructed by Raja Srinand Singh of Srinagar Estate. There is a grave of Madho Singh on an earthen mound about 50 feet high. Madho Singh had become a martyr in the battle of Ladri Ghat. Offerings are made on he rave both by Hindus and Muslims.

Glacier lakes:
At present, in the Himalayan region, glaciers are melting and retreating resulting in formation of lakes insecurely dammed by ice or moraines. These dams are at risk of failing, causing a Glacial Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) with flows as great as 10,000 cubic meters a second. Such floods are likely to destroy communication systems and various infrastructures like bridges roads, hydropower projects (directly or indirectly), foot trails, villages, fields and terraces, irrigation canals, and could cost hundreds or even thousands of lives. Such floods also transport huge amounts of sediment.  
In the past two decades GLOF has become a topic of intense discussion within the development community in Nepal. Studies of the glaciers and glacier lakes were carried out in 1988 by a joint Sino-Nepalese team. In the Arun-Koshi river basin, there are 737 glaciers in Tibet and 229 glacier lakes, out of which 24 glacier lakes are potentially dangerous. Similarly, there are 45 glacier lakes in the Sun-Koshi basin, out of which 10 are potentially dangerous.

Koshi Tappu Wildlife:
Koshi Tappu Wildlife reserve is a wetland situated in the flood plains of the Sapta-Koshi River in Nepal’s Eastern Terai. Gazette-notified as a wild life reserve in 1976, it covers a reserve area of 175 km2 (68 sq mi) and is one of the Outstanding Important Bird Areas in the Indo-Gangetic grasslands. The park has large population of Swamp Francolin, breeding Bristled Grass-warbler, records of White-throated Bushchat and Finn’s Weaver.[10] The Koshi river forms the major landmark of the reserve and is home to 80 fish species, around 441 species of birds, 30 shore birds, 114 water birds, 20 ducks and 2 ibises. The endangered swamp partridge and Bengal florican are also found here. The Koshi Barrage is an extremely important resting-place for migratory birds (87 nos winter visitors). In view of its rich biodiversity it was declared a Ramsar site of international significance in 1987.[11] The endangered Gharial crocodile and Gangetic dolphin locally known as sons in Bihar and a further endangered species (freshwater dolphin) have been recorded in the river.

Sagarmatha National park:
Sagarmatha National park is located in eastern Nepal, including parts of the Himalayas and the southern half of Mount Everest. The park, which is also included as a UNESCO world heritage site, was created on 19 July 1976. Sagarmatha in Sanskrit means “Forhead of Universe” (Sagar: Sky or Heavens; Matha: Forhead) and is the modern Nepali name for Mount Everest. The park covers an area of 1,148 km2 (443 sq mi) and ranges in elevation from its lowest point of 2,845 m (9,330 ft) at Jorsalle to 8,848 m (29,030 ft) at the summit of Mount Everest (highest peak in the world).[8] Other peaks above 6,000 m (20,000 ft) are Lhotse, Cho-Oyu, Thamserku, Nuptse, Amadablam, and Pumori. The upper watershed of the Dudh Koshi river basin system lies in the park. The types of plants and animals that are found in the park depend on the altitude.

Basin:
From Katmandu, there is a road for some distance followed by trekking paths to Mt Everest, which crosses four major tributaries of the Koshi. Namche Bazar near Tibet border in Nepal (near southern base camp of Mt Everest) is the major tourist centre in the mountainous part of the Koshi belt. Birātnagar in Nepal, and Purnia and Katihār in India are major cities on the Koshi Plains. Kamlā, Bāghmati (Kareh) and Budhi Gandak are major tributaries of Koshi in India, besides minor tributaries like Bhutahi Balān.
Legend:
Formerly Kauśiki (named after sage Viśvāmitra because Viśvāmitra is said to have attained the status of Vedic ṛṣi or Rishi on its banks; Viśvāmitra was descendant of sage Kuśika and was called Kauśika in Rgveda), in Nepal and Bihar in northern India is a major tributary of the Ganges (one major tributary of the Koshi is the Arun, a major part of whose course is in Tibet).
This river is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata as Kauśiki. Seven Koshis join together to form the Saptakoshi River/Sapt Koshi which is popularly known as the Koshi.It is also the lifeline of the Mithila region, today spread over more than half of India’s state of Bihar, and parts of adjoining Nepal and it forms the basis of legend and folklore of the region; the legend of Mithila extends over many centuries. Mithila is also the name of a style of Hindu art created in the Mithila area.
Nearest Petrol Pump:
Petrol Pump:Bhagalpur,Bihar,India  
Petrol Pump:Bhagalpur,Bihar,India
Hotels/Lodge/Accommodation:
Anand Hotel:Sabzi Market,Saharsa,Bihar,India  
Satkar Hotel:Saharsa,Bihar,India
Sana Rest House:Saharsa,Bihar,India
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Police Station:100
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Sadar Hospital:Khagaria,Bihar,India
Sadar Hosiptal:Begusarai,Bihar,India
Refinery Township Hospital:Begusarai,Bihar,India
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Link:www.en.wikipedia.org

Shivaratri

Shivaratri-Bihar
About:
Maha Shivratri or Maha Shivaratri (Night of Shiva) is a Hindu festival, celebrated all over the country with much pump and enthusiasm. The festival usually falls every year on the 13th night/14th day in the Krishna Paksha of the month of Maagha (as per Shalivahana) or Phalguna (as per Vikrama) in the Hindu calendar. The festival is exclusively dedicated to Lord Shiva which is known by hundreds of names.Maha Shivratri is the day to rejoice…to pray to the almighty for wellness. Almost all Hindus throughout the world offer prayers in the morning/evening and some observe fasting throughout the day. Most people visit the nearby temples of Shiva and offer prayers in large crowds.  

The prayers and worship continue throughout the night and the devotees offer coconut, Bilva leaves, fruits and specially prepared sacred food to Shiva and his divine consort Parvati. As this is a dark fortnight, Devotees light candles and diyas (a lamp made usually of clay, with wick made of cotton and dipped in ghee) throughout the night – this is a symbol of spiritual manifestation.  

On this day, devotees stay awake throughout the night offering prayers to Lord Shiva. They offer special food made from the fruits of the season, root vegetables and coconut to the Lord. Special celebrations are held in some of the major Shiva temples.Shivaratri worship leads to fulfillment of a devotee’s wishes. There are certain days and time frames in a year that enhance one’s mental and spiritual faculties. In such times, whatever one wishes, materializes. Shivaratri is one such day. All this is very scientific.

Going to temples on this day is ok but you should remember that Shiva is everywhere. The meaning of Kailasa (legendary abode of Shiva in Himalayas) is celebration. So where there is happiness and celebration, Shiva is present. Whether in Sanyasa or Sansara, you can’t escape Shiva. Feeling his presence all the time is the essence of Shivaratri. That is the real Sanyasa.
Time(indian calendar Tithi):
Best time to visit: Hindu calender of a Krishna Paksh in the month of Falgun.
Climate/Weather:
Bihar climate in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. There are regional variations. Some parts of the state like Ranchi,Netarhat, and Parasnath have pleasant climate even during the summers. Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September accounting for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.
History:
According to one, during the samudra manthan, a pot of poison emerged from the ocean. This terrified the Gods and demons as the poison was capable of destroying the entire world, and they ran to Shiva for help. To protect the world from its evil effects, Shiva drank the deathly poison but held it in his throat instead of swallowing it. This made his throat turn blue, and he was given the name Neelakantha, the blue-throated one. Shivaratri is the celebration of this event by which Shiva saved the world.  

According to another legend in the Shiva Purana, once the other two of the triads of Hindu Gods, Brahma and Vishnu, were fighting over who was the superior of the two. Horrified at the intensity of the battle, the other gods asked Shiva to intervene. To make them realize the futility of their fight, Shiva assumed the form of a huge column of fire in between Brahma and Vishnu. Awestruck by its magnitude, they decided to find one end each to establish supremacy over the other.

Brahma assumed the form of a swan and went upwards and Vishnu as Varaha went into the earth. But light has no limit and though they searched for thousands of miles, neither could find the end. On his journey upwards, Brahma came across a Ketaki flower wafting down slowly. When asked where she had come from, the Ketaki replied that she had been placed at the top of the fiery column as an offering. Unable to find the uppermost limit, Brahma decided to end his search and take the flower as a witness
Importance of festival:
Shivaratri is an important festival in Jharkhand, celebrated elegantly in almost all the temples of the state. This Jharkhand temple festival has an adjacent Kunda Mela, especially held in Pratappur. This mela is held at the time of falgun Shivratri and is marked by a big trade of cattle. Kolhua mela in Hunterganj is another traditional festivity of Jharkhand, held twice in a year during Magh Basant panchami and chaitra Ramnaumi respectively. There is a beautiful lake and ancient temple of Goddess Kali on the top of the hill. This religious fair in Jharkhand is a vital celebration in the state.
Method of Celebration:
Puja: Panchamrut made of un-boiled milk, curds, ghee, honey and powdered sugar.Roll, moli, chawal, sandalwood powder/paste, dhoop, deepak, agarbathi, karpoor, matchsticks, janeu and kacha soot (raw white thread), Gangajal Bhaang, bhasm (ash).Flowers, durva (tender grass), belpatr (if possible write ’Ram’ with sandalwood paste on every leaf).Aakde ke flowers (wild white and purple flowers), dhatura leaves and flowers, lotus flowers.Green bel fruit, betel leaves, betel nut, cloves, cardamom.Five kinds of dry fruits: almonds, cashew nuts, raisins, taalmakhana and dry coconut. Slice dry coconut finely halve the cashew and taalmakhana and mix it with almonds and raisins.Sweets for prasad: this has to be non-cereal like peda, coconut barfi, laddoo, etc.Thandai (a drink made from milk, almonds, elaichi).Money for dakshina, Book of aartis.

Vidhi:
Puja is performed to the Shiv Parivar Shivji, Parvati Mata, Ganeshji, Karthikeyan and NandiA fast is observed the whole day and one eats after the puja in the nightSome people have Pundit read the Rudra PaathAbhishek for Shivji is performed with panchamrutSweets and thandai are offered as bhogRatrl laagran (staying awake at night). People stay awake through the night singing Shivji bhajans either at home or at the templeAarti is sung after the pujaMany people fast on this day and eat only falahaar i.e. no grains and creals. Wheat, rice, lentils, peas, beans, rajma, corn, chana should not be eaten. Turmeric, sesame seeds and ground red chillies are not used in cooking. Full red and green chillies, rock salt, pepper, lime and mango powder can be used.
Mahashivratri fast:
Roti made of kuttu flour or singhada (water chestnut) flour. 
(Buttermilk) kadhi with singhada flour.

Potato curry, sweet potato chaat, paneer and aloo chaat, sago vacla, potato & kuttu atta pakodi in cords, raw banana vadaas.Almond halwa.
Porridge made out of saamak with vegetables like lauki and paneer. Recipe – Sabudana / Sago Kheer
100 gms sabudaana/sago, 300 gms sugar.
1 litre milk, litre water.
Wash and soak sabudana for 4-5 minutes, mix sabudana in milk, add water and boil. Add sugar just before the kheer is well cooked and simmer for 5 minutes.

Taalmakhana Kheer:
Cut and roast taalmakhana and keep aside. Boil milk on a slew flame till it thickens. Add sugar to the boiling milk, simmer for a few minutes and add the roasted taalmakhana.

Sago Khichidi Ingredients:
Large sago seeds, green chilies, salt, mango powder, pepper, lemon, cashewn uts, peanuts, ghee, potatoes and paneer. Soak sabudana/sago in water for an hour. Chop cashew nuts and peanuts, fry them and keep aside, chop paneer & aloo, fry and keep aside.
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In all major centers of Shiva worship, Shivratri, also called Maha Shivratri, is a grand occasion. From the very early morning, Shiva temples are filled with devotees, mostly women, who come to perform the traditional worship of the Shivalinga.

All throughout the day, devotees abstain from eating food and break their fast only the next morning after which the nightlong worship takes place. This day is considered especially auspicious for women. As on this very day, married women pray for the well being of their husbands and sons, while unmarried women pray for a husband like Shiva, who is considered to fit the bill of ideal husband because ‘He’ more or less have each and every quality that women want in her future husband.

Hymns in praise of Lord Shiva are sung with great fervor and devotion. People repeat the Panchakshara Mantra: “Om Namah Shivaya”. It is believed that one who utters the name of Shiva during Shivratri with proper devotion is freed from all sins, he/she reaches the abode of Shiva and lives happily there and it is also believed that he/she is liberated from the cycle of birth and death.
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Sarhul

Sarhul-Bihar
About:
Sarhul is the festival of flowers and is the most popular of all the tribal festivals. The festival is observed by Mundas, Oraon and Santhal tribal communities, inhabiting in the regions of Orissa, Jharkhand and Bihar. The Santhals call it Baha and celebrated it in February-March while the Oraons celebrate in the month of March-April. Sarhul literally means ‘Worship of Sal’. Sarhul is the worship of nature in which the people worship Dharti Mata as Sita, the wife of Lord Ram. They also worship water, wind, plants and animals. During the festival, Sal flowers are brought to the sarna (sacred grove) and the priest propitiates all the gods of the tribes. Hadia or Diang, a wine made of stale rice is the ’Prasad’ of this festival.

Sarhul Festival, Bihar, which is similar to the festival of Indian Vasant-Mahotsav, is a festival of flowers. This event offers scope for great merriment, festivity and enjoyment for people of the different age groups. Young maidens and youths sing and dance all night long to the beat of the drums, while the elderly crowd, sit around and watch them and enjoy their song and dance. Sarhul Festival in Bihar is celebrated by the tribal communities of Oraon, Mundras, and Santhal, who populate the regions of Jharkhand, Bihar and Orissa. The Santhals refer to this festival as Baha and celebrate it with great pomp and joy during the months of February and March. On the other hand, the Oraons, celebrate this festival in the months of March and April. They perform a traditional Sarhul Dance at this time. Sarhul Festival lasts for a number of days.The literal meaning of Sarhul is ‘Worship of Sal.

This is a festival where nature and the soil are worshiped. The people worship the motherland, Dharti Mata as Sita, the wife of Lord Ram. The other elements of nature are worshiped are the plants, animals, wind and water. During Sarhul Festival in Bihar, the Sal flowers are brought to the sacred grove or sarna. After this, the priest begins to make peace with the gods of the various tribes. The “Prasad” of the Sarhul Festival is called Diang or Hadia. This is wine, which is made of stale rice. Sarhul Festival in Bihar is one of the most popular tribal festivals in the region. It is a festival of flowers, which you must witness during your Bihar Tours. This Bihar festival is extremely enjoyable. Be sure to experience the Sarhul Festival in Bihar.
Time(indian calendar Tithi):
Best time to visit: Sarhul Festival in Bihar is celebrated on the last day of Baisakh, which falls in the month of April.
Climate/Weather:
Jharkhand climate in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. There are regional variations. Some parts of the state like Ranchi,Netarhat, and Parasnath have pleasant climate even during the summers. Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September accounting for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.
History:
The most important festival for the tribals of Chotanagpur is Sarhul, which translates as the Sal tree blossom, held at the beginning of spring. Sal trees are worshipped in the sacred grove. Different tribes have different ways of celebrating this festival, but each one worships the spirit of the Sal tree to seek its blessings for a good harvest.The deities are worshipped with shaal flowers. The shaal flowers represent the brotherhood and friendship among villagers. The priest is called Pahan and he distributes shaal flowers to every villager. The Prasad is then distributed among the villagers.
Importance of festival:
It is an important festival of Mundas,celebrated in the month of April. This festival iscelebrated to worship their ancestors. Legend says that once a lion ran after a man and the man escaped and saved his life by hiding himself behind the bush. He at once resolved that once in a year he will offer Sakua’s flowers and leaves and sacrifice a living animal. Since then this festival has been celebrated by the Munda people.
Method of Celebration:
Puja:
During the puja, Pahan comes with three pitchers to Sarna, out of which two pitchers are filled with pond water. It is widely believed by the Mundas that if the water level gets reduced overnight rains fail to come through the year and if the water level remains the same, monsoon arrives on time.Since it is prohibited for women to go to Sarna all the men go to Sarna to offer Sakua’s flowers and leaves along with Arwa rice, handia and three hens.On the first day cooked Arwa rice is offered to Sarna, and then the people eat it.On the second day third pitcher is filled with handia and kept in front of Sarna and accepted as prasad.  

cooking:
On the third day, a hen is sacrificed and eaten after cooking it.If some food material is left over then it is brought to the home and then eaten only by the males. Women are forbidden to eat chicken to let it pick the rice. Munda’s wife also plays an important role in this process.Pahan’s wife with a chicken and all the other women move forward by singing a song and keeping the pitchers on their heads.

pitchers:
After covering some distance they stop and place their pitchers on the ground, remove impurities from it and wipe on the ground and again they put and wipe on the ground and again they put doing so they reach the border of the village and put their pitchers on the ground and worship. Then they break the pitchers with the stick and leave a chicken in the jungle and run back into the village by some other path.
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Culture of festivities:
The Sarhul festival is celebrated in merry mood, festivity, and enjoyment among people of different age groups. Young maidens and youths sing and dance all night to the beat of the drums, while the elderly crowds, sit around, watch them, and enjoy their song and dance. The tribal communities of Oraon, Mundras, and Santhal celebrate Sarhul Festival in Bihar.The tribal communities that celebrate this festival are spread in Jharkhand, Bihar and Orissa. The Santhals refer to this festival as Baha and celebrate it with great pomp and joy during the months of February and March. On the other hand, the Oraons, celebrate this festival in the months of March and April. They perform a traditional Sarhul Dance at this time. Sarhul Festival lasts for a number of days.
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Ramnavami

Ramnavami-Bihar
About:
Darbhanga Bihar Keeping alive a decades-old tradition, a Muslim family in Bihar Monday celebrated Ramnavami, the birth anniversary of Hindu god Lord Ram, in yet another example of communal amity in India. Shamim Ansari, in his late 20s, is proud of his family tradition that also includes helping Hindu neighbours in making preparations for holy offerings and rituals.  

The birth anniversary of Lord Rama is celebrated in the month of Chaitra, which usually falls in March or April according to the Hindu calendar is known as Ramnavami. Ramnavami is dedicated to the memory of Lord Rama. It occurs on the ninth day (navami). The festival commemorates the birth of Rama who is remembered for his prosperous and righteous reign. Ramrajya (the reign of Rama) has become synonymous with a period of peace and prosperity. It is celebrated with great devotion across the nation and every region has its own regional significance behind the celebration. The public worship starts with morning ablutions, chanting Vedic mantras dedicated to Vishnu, and offering flowers and fruit to the god. People keep a fast throughout the day, breaking it only at midnight with fruit.

The Ramayana is a story of Lord Rama, written by the sage Valmiki in the 4th century B.C. As the legend goes, Lord Rama, eldest son of King Dashratha, was banished to the forest for 14 long years. He was dethroned due to his stepmother’s plans who wanted to see her son Bharata ascend the throne in place of the elder brother Rama. Rama willingly gave away the throne and his wife Sita and brother Lakshman followed Rama to the forest, leaving the throne for Bharata.

Lord Rama was the ideal son, a righteous King, an upright husband and a loving brother. He also led an ideal life of a householder. He was also the true embodiment of humanity. Ram Navami is a therefore a special reminder of the noble ideals for which Lord Rama stood. The festival of Ram Navami marks the birthday celebrations of the Hindu Lord Rama, who is considered to be one of the incarnations of Lord Vishnu. According to the Hindu calendar, it falls on the ninth day of the Chaitra month, which is the Spring season. In some parts of India, it is celebrated as a nine-day festival that coincides with Vasanta Navratri, dedicated to the female force or Divine Mother better known as Durga or Shakti.
Time(indian calendar Tithi):
Best time to visit: Ayodhya, Apr 14
Climate/Weather:
The cold weather commences early in November and comes to an end in the middle of March. The climate in the cold weather is pleasant. The hot weather then sets in and lasts till the middle of June. Like other parts of the northern India,Bihar also experiences dust-storms,thunder-storms and dust raising winds during the hot season. The highest temperature is often registered in May which is the hottest month in the state. The rainy season commences after summer and continues till the end of September.
History:
In these 14 years of banishment, Rama waged and won a war against the evil Ravana, the King of Lanka, who had kidnapped his wife Sita. He was aided by a band of monkeys, the most loyal of whom is worshipped today as Lord Hanuman. Rama ascended the Ayodhya throne after the triumph over Ravana. Even as he started ruling, he was forced to banish his wife from the kingdom, following a villager’s adverse comment about her association with Ravana. The legend is cited to prove how Lord Rama always lived a life of righteousness (dharma). He was born to destroy the evil and protect the weak. As he embodies the highest ideals of man, he is called the Maryada Pushottam, which means the perfect and best man, someone who follows the path of righteousness against all odds.
Importance of festival:
Ram Navami is one of the most important festivals of the Vaishnav sect of Hindus. In the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, early morning rituals mark Ram Navami. It entails a havan, chanting of Vedic mantras and offerings of fruits and flowers. A Rama temple is beautifully decorated and the image of the Lord Rama is adorned with rich clothes and jewels. Stories from the Ramayana are read out in joyous public gatherings and satsangs. Most people fast until midnight. They break their fast with a prasad of fruits and milk. This festival is celebrated with great pomp and glory even in Pondicherry, Rishikesh and Ayodhya, the birthplace of Lord Rama. The Ram Navami fair held at Ayodhya draws a huge crowd of dedicated devotees. In the South, this festival is celebrated for nine days as the wedding of Lord Rama and his lovely consort Sita. People sing and chant the name of the Lord. Devotees have a highly colourful ceremony to mark the wedding celebrations.
Method of Celebration:
Method: Wash and drain Sabudana and keep it aside.When it gets soft, add to boiling milk.Boil milk till it thickens.After the milk has become dense, dissolve the sugar in water and add to the milk.Cook on medium heat stirring continuously, till thick.Add the cashew nuts and other raisins.Refrigerate and serve after half an hour.
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In some parts of India, especially Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, public gatherings called satsangs are organised to commemorate the birth of Rama. The pilgrims flock the temples of Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh, where Rama was born and Pondicherry to participate in Ramnavami festivities. Excerpts from the Ramacharitamanas are recited on the occasion. Rama Leela (the play depicting the major life events of Rama) are organized in different parts of the country. The highlights of the festival are these Ram Leela and colorful processions with brilliant floats of Rama, His consort Sita, brother Lakshmana and the great devotee and monkey-general Hanuman, which are taken out in the streets of different states. People visit sacred places associated with Lord Ram during this holy time. Places like Ayodhya, Ujjain and Rameshwaram, attracts thousands of devotees across the country.
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Kali Puja

Kali Puja-Bihar
About:
The convention is that, once begun, Kali puja has to be performed annually for five consecutive years. Kali is worshipped in households as well as communally in puja pandals. Many trantrics perform a tantric form of Kali puja such as Smashana Kali who is tha Kali of cremation grounds. She is similar to Raksha Kali in her appearance and is painted black standing diagonally across Shiva with her left foot forward instead of her right foot. Some Bengalis make a distinction between Daksina meaning right in this case and Vama meaning left according to which foot is placed on Shiva’s chest. Images of Shmashana Kali are worshipped at night in a cremation ground and immersed before dawn.

Kali Puja is done to diminish the ego and all negative tendencies that hinder spiritual progress and material prosperity. Performed on the night of Kartik Amavasya, which falls in October/November, Kali Puja is an intense invocation to the fearsome goddess. The main purpose of the puja is to seek the help of the goddess in destroying evil – both in the outside world and within us.The legend goes that long ago the demons, Shambhu and Nishambhu, disturbed the peace of Indra, the king of gods, and his empire (heaven). After extensive and endless battles, the gods lost all hope and the demons became stronger.
Time(indian calendar Tithi):
Best time to visit: Octobet to Nvember(Hindu calander Dipawali)
Climate/Weather:
The climate in this region is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. Temperature during the summer months touch a high of 41.1’C and a low of 19.4’C. Winter months are better and the temperature ranges between a maximum and minimum of 19.4’C and 7’C. The monsoon months are July to mid-September.
History:
Kali puja is celebrated with lots of gusto and fanfare in Bengal after Durga Puja during the time of Diwali. It is believed that Maharaja Krishnan Chandra of Nawadweep was the first to celebrate Kali Puja in his territory. Everyone was ordered to celebrate Kali puja and thus 10,000 images of Kali were worshipped. Ratanti Kali Puja was celebrated in ancient times before the present Kali puja. It is believed that the present form of Kali is due to a dream by a distinguished scholar of Indian charms and black magic or ‘Tantra’ and the author of Tantric Saar, Krishnananda Agambagish, a contemporary of Lord Chaitanya. In his dream he was ordered to make her image after the first figure he saw in the morning. At dawn, Krishnanand saw a dark complexioned maid with left hand protruding and making cow dung cakes with her right hand. Her body was glowing with white dots. The vermillion spread over her forehead while she was wiping the sweat from her forehead. The hair was untidy. When she came face to face with an elderly Krishnananda, she bit her tongue in shame. This posture of the housemaid was later utilized to envisage the idol of Goddess Kali. Thus was formed the image of Kali
Importance of festival:
The second most important festival is Kali puja held at the dead of night on the new moon of Kartik in October-November. Most forms of Kali are worshipped but the most common is that of Daksina Kali which shows Kali in her generous or boon-giving form. As Raksha Kali she give protection from epidemics or misfortune. In Bengal, Kali is connected with epidemics, especially cholera.The form of Raksha Kali shows here without protruding tongue or garland of human heads and she is only two-armed. She is worshipped if one’s wishes have been fulfilled on the completion of a vrata or vow.
Method of Celebration:
The popular forms of Kali are Shyama, Adya Maa, Tara Maa and Dakshina Kalika, Chamundi. There are other forms as well. They are known as Bhadrakali who is gentle and Shyamashana Kali who stays at the cremation ground. Kali has four arms and is represented with perhaps the fiercest creatures among all the deities in the world. She has a sword in one hand and a demon’s head on the other. Her other two hands bless her devotees. Her eyes are red and her body is smeared with blood. Her black complexion represents the transcendental nature. Kali is free from all artificial covering beyond all maya or false consciousness. She has infinite knowledge which is represented by the garland o fifty skulls depicting 50 letters in the Sanskrit alphabet. Her inner purity is represented by her white teeth while her omnivorous nature is depicted in her protruding tongue. Three modes of time, the past, present and future are represented by her three eyes.
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Traditional images of Kali stand at about 4′ tall and show a four-armed Kali standing with right leg forward and placed on the chest of Shiva who lies beneath her. Kali is naked and wears a garland of human heads and a girdle of severed arms. She carries in her bottom left hand a severed head, top left a sword dripping with blood while her other hands are open in blessing and offering protection. Her tongue lolls out of her blood-soaked mouth and her hair hangs dishevelled over her shoulders down to her knees. she wears anklets, armbands, bracelets and a large crown. She is usually given a stylised breast-plate. Kali as her name implies is usually painted black although it is common to see blue images also. If she is painted black, the eyebrows and lines around her eyes and mouth are painted red also. Flashes of red are painted on her arms, legs, torso, palms of the hands and soles of her feet. The red against the black heightens the already gruesome effect of Kali’s appearance. In contract, Shiva is shown as a white, ash-smeared ascetic with matted hair, lying on a tiger skin, surrounded by snakes. Shiva’s eyes are half closed in meditation and he lies on his back with arms behind his head or propped up on an elbow. He wears raksasa beads around his head and is dressed in a tiger skin. In one hand is his dumaru drum and in the other a horn.
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Chhath Pooja

Chhath Pooja-Bihar
About:
Chhath Puja is celebrated mainly in Bihar, Utter Pradesh, Utteranchal and Jharkhand, now a days, you can see a celebration almost everwhere in India. The festival takes place, on the banks of the River Ganges, in people’s homes and at the Sun Temple of Baragaon, two kilometers outside Nalanda, in Bihar.  

Chhath or Surya Puja is the main festival of Bihar. This festival is held after six days of Diwali. Chhath is a festival of prayer and propitiation observed with solemnity. It is an expression of thanks giving and seeking the blessings from the forces of nature, mainly the Sun and river. The belief is that a devotee’s desire is always fulfilled during Chhath. In this festival, the people worship the Sun God. On the first day, the house is thoroughly cleaned, family members go in for a holy dip and eat strict vegetarian food and sleep on the floor. All earthen vessels are reserved for this day only. The person observing the Chaath also known as Parvati, observes dawn to dusk fast which concludes with sweets. This is followed by another fast for 36 Hours till the dawn of the final day when puja starts at the river bank much before sunrise. These parvatis remain in water from late midnight until the first ray of dawn. The rivers are flooded with offerings to the sun which is followed by breakfast and distribution among the gatherings. Fresh paddy, sweets and fruits are also offered by the devotees to the Sun God for a good harvest at the sun temple in Baragaon near Nalanda.

Chhat, the thanksgiving festival dedicated to the Sun God for bestowing the bounties of life in earth and fulfilling everyone’s wishes, started in Patna on November 3 with Kharna ritual. The festival is significant for married women in specific, as they observe a two-day fast and offer prayers standing waist-deep in water and offer fruits and flowers to Surya, the Sun God. In Patna on this day several married women observed dawn to dusk fast marking ‘Kharna’ for the long life of husband and son and mark the first day of the three-day Chhat Puja.The occasion is celebrated specifically by people of Bihar and also by those living in particular parts of the neighboring Uttar Pradesh State.

Chhat Puja acts as a unifying force both socially and culturally. In Patna, large number of devotees thronged market to make last minute purchase for the Chhat Puja in Patna. Chhat Puja holds great significance, as it is said to be Biharis’ main festival and thus celebrated with full gaiety. “Chhat is the main festival. Today is Kharna, the festival of ‘Kheer’ and ‘Puri’ (which signifies the beginning of Chhat puja). They have returned after taking bath in the Ganga river. They have come to buy fruits.

Chhath is a way to be grateful to the Sun for giving the bounties of life on earth and for the fulfillment of wishes of believers. It is a festival of reverence to the solar deity, the only festival in the world where devotees offer salutations to the setting sun. Unlike Holi or Diwali, Chhath is a festival of prayer and appeasement observed with somberness, a festival that should not be missed. It is held in high esteem and regard.

Chhath is the festival of truth, non-violence, forgiveness and compassion. It is a festival celebrated by the Biharis on the sixth day of the lunar month after Diwali every year usually a 4 day long celebration accompanied by rituals or “Suryashashthi’. The rituals usually consist of fasting, folklore, hymns, together with the somber hues on the banks of the celestial Ganga or any fresh watery body. For example “Chhat Maiya” is celebrated on the banks of the river Ganga in Patna and on Yamuna in Delhi. A million lit lamps with thousands hands offering ‘Arghya’ to the sun makes it a delightful sight. The enormous faith in Chhat Puja has made it one of the most popular festivals this region.
Time(indian calendar Tithi):
Best time to visit: Chhath Puja takes place, sometime during the months of October and November, Holi.Hindu lunar month of Kartik
Climate/Weather:
Bihar climate in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters. There are regional variations. Some parts of the state like Ranchi,Netarhat, and Parasnath have pleasant climate even during the summers. Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September accounting for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.
History:
The ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata has references to Draupadi, wife of the Pandavas, worshipping the sun, which was believed to help cure a variety of diseases, including leprosy, and ensure longevity and prosperity of family members, friends, and elders. In addition, it is believed that Chhath was started by Karna, the son of Surya, who became a great warrior and fought against the Pandavas in the Kurukshetra War.
Importance of festival:
The Puja holds great importance in our lives and we celebrate it with great devotion.They buy banana, apple, lemon, coconut and gorgan nut to mark the puja. Chatth has a great importance in Bihar and it is being celebrated as per the traditions.People bathe at Ghats, the riverbanks, and pay obeisance to both the rising and the setting sun during the festival. It is celebrated on the sixth and seventh days after Diwali, the festival of lights. Dancing on the tunes of the devotional songs,people offer fruits and flowers to please the Sun God.
Method of Celebration:
puja:
Surya: The sun (the Sun God is worshipped during the festival of Chhath Puja).   Chhath: In the context of Chhath Puja, Chhath refers to the number six and the importance of this date on the Indian festival calendar Puja: Various interpretations exist of the word “puja,” including worship with offerings, especially of flowers, and ritual anointment with sandalwood paste. Puja is the combination of the Sanskrit words for sin and birth.

Prasad: Prasad: Ritual offerings. Puris: This deep-fried bread, made from wheat flour, is traditionally offered at the festival of Chhath Puja. Thekuwa: This is a wheat-based cake served during the festival of Chhath Puja.

RITUALS:
Almost immediately after the merriment of Diwali subsided, the solemnity of Chhath takes over. Adult married women of the household make all the preparations that are required for the puja. While the younger women and children take over the everyday household chores, these women begin with a thorough spring-cleaning of all the things that would be used to prepare the prasad or food offerings to the Sun God. Everything, from the kitchen chulha to the ladles, cooking wok, and, frying pan, is purified.

It is the bounty of the harvest, which is deemed a fit offering to the Sun god. Newly pounded rice is soaked and made into a paste. Dry fruits, nuts and slivers of coconut are used as flavoring and the cooked lump is then rolled in the palms, into hardened laddoos. Wheat flour becomes the main ingredient for the traditional cake called thekuwa. The dough is cut into shapes or pressed into wooden moulds before they are fried a crisp deep brown, to be eaten as a crumbling mouthful. Generous amounts of clarified butter, oodles of jaggery and coconut shavings go into this equivalent of the cookie.
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Culture of festivities:
On the day before the festival of Chhath Puja, it is customary for participants to gather on the riverbanks and cleanse themselves, briefly, in the water of the River Ganges.After cleansing, a token amount of sacred water is retained for use as offerings during the festival of Chhath Puja.Before Chhath Puja, people fast throughout the day and into the early evening.The fast is followed by worship in the home. Festive fare consisting of freshly harvested rice, puris (a local bread type delicacy), and fruit such as bananas, coconuts and grapefruit are then served to the family.On the second day of Chhath Puja a strict 24-hour fast is observed; not even water is consumed.
Cooking utensils are purified by the senior women of the household, as part of the ritual preparation of offerings for the main part of the celebration of Chhath Puja.At sunset, worshippers proceed to the riverbank bearing their offerings in baskets held high to avoid the impure touch of human hands.The participants then pay homage to the Sun God, at the precise moment of the setting sun.Further celebrations take place at nightfall under temporary canopies made from sugar cane stalks where offerings are laid out as a tribute to the god of fire.Well before sunrise, when the sky is pitch black, worshippers return to the riverbank to pray to the rising sun; this ritual is considered the focal point of the ceremony of Chhath Puja.Following prayers and the purifying bathing ritual, the fast is ended with the offering, or prasad, to the Sun God.Offerings are then shared with families, friends and fellow worshippers, accompanied by the chanting of the Rig Veda Gayatri Mantra to the Sun God.
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